Article

Perivascular nitric oxide activates notch signaling and promotes stem-like character in PDGF-induced glioma cells.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.
Cell stem cell (Impact Factor: 23.56). 02/2010; 6(2):141-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2010.01.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT eNOS expression is elevated in human glioblastomas and correlated with increased tumor growth and aggressive character. We investigated the potential role of nitric oxide (NO) activity in the perivascular niche (PVN) using a genetic engineered mouse model of PDGF-induced gliomas. eNOS expression is highly elevated in tumor vascular endothelium adjacent to perivascular glioma cells expressing Nestin, Notch, and the NO receptor, sGC. In addition, the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway drives Notch signaling in PDGF-induced gliomas in vitro, and induces the side population phenotype in primary glioma cell cultures. NO also increases neurosphere forming capacity of PDGF-driven glioma primary cultures, and enhances their tumorigenic capacity in vivo. Loss of NO activity in these tumors suppresses Notch signaling in vivo and prolongs survival of mice. This mechanism is conserved in human PDGFR amplified gliomas. The NO/cGMP/PKG pathway's promotion of stem cell-like character in the tumor PVN may identify therapeutic targets for this subset of gliomas.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
110 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma recurrence involves the persistence of a subpopulation of cells with enhanced tumor-initiating capacity (TIC) that reside within the perivascular space, or niche (PVN). Anti-angiogenic therapies may prevent the formation of new PVN but have not prevented recurrence in clinical trials, suggesting they cannot abrogate TIC activity. We hypothesized that combining anti-angiogenic therapy with blockade of PVN function would have superior anti-tumor activity. We tested this hypothesis in an established intracranial xenograft model of GBM using a monoclonal antibody specific for murine and human VEGF (mcr84) and a Protein Epitope Mimetic (PEM) CXCR4 antagonist, POL5551. When doses of POL5551 were increased to overcome an mcr84-induced improvement in vascular barrier function, combinatorial therapy significantly inhibited intracranial tumor growth and improved survival. Anti-tumor activity was associated with significant changes in tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis, and a reduction in the numbers of perivascular cells expressing the TIC marker nestin. A direct effect on TICs was demonstrated for POL5551, but not mcr84, in three primary patient-derived GBM isolates. These findings indicate that targeting the structure and function of the PVN has superior anti-tumor effect and provide a strong rationale for clinical evaluation of POL5551 and Avastin in patients with GBM.
    Oncotarget 09/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal hematological diseases in which cells of the myelo-erythroid lineage are overproduced and patients are predisposed to leukemic transformation. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the suspected disease initiating cells and these cells must acquire a clonal advantage relative to non-mutant HSCs in order to perpetuate disease. In 2005, several groups identified a single gain-of-function point mutation in JAK2 that associated with the majority of MPNs, and subsequent studies have led to a comprehensive understanding of the mutational landscape in MPNs. However, confusion still exists as to how a single genetic aberration can be associated with multiple distinct disease entities. Many explanations have been proposed, including JAK2V617F homozygosity, individual patient heterogeneity and the differential regulation of downstream JAK2 signaling pathways. Several groups have made knock-in mouse models expressing JAK2V617F and have observed divergent phenotypes, each recapitulating some aspects of disease. Intriguingly, most of these models do not observe a strong HSC self-renewal advantage compared to WT littermate controls, raising the question of how a clonal advantage is established in MPN patients. This review summarizes the current molecular understanding of MPNs, the diversity of disease phenotypes and proposes that the increased proliferation induced by JAK2V617F applies a selection pressure on the mutant clone that results in highly diverse clonal evolution in individuals.
    Experimental Hematology 10/2014; · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glioblastomas (GBM) are some bad prognosis brain tumors despite a conventional treatment associating surgical resection and subsequent radio-chemotherapy. Among these heterogeneous tumors, a subpopulation of chemo- and radioresistant GBM stem-like cells appears to be involved in the systematic GBM recurrence. Moreover, recent studies showed that differentiated tumor cells may have the ability to dedifferentiate and acquire a stem-like phenotype, a phenomenon also called plasticity, in response to microenvironment stresses such as hypoxia. We hypothesized that GBM cells could be subjected to a similar dedifferentiation process after ionizing radiations (IRs), then supporting the GBM rapid recurrence after radiotherapy. In the present study we demonstrated that subtoxic IR exposure of differentiated GBM cells isolated from patient resections potentiated the long-term reacquisition of stem-associated properties such as the ability to generate primary and secondary neurospheres, the expression of stemness markers and an increased tumorigenicity. We also identified during this process an upregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin and we showed that its specific downregulation led to the blockade of the IR-induced plasticity. Altogether, these results demonstrated that irradiation could regulate GBM cell dedifferentiation via a survivin-dependent pathway. Targeting the mechanisms associated with IR-induced plasticity will likely contribute to the development of some innovating pharmacological strategies for an improved radiosensitization of these aggressive brain cancers.
    Cell Death & Disease 11/2014; 5:e1543. · 5.18 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
109 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014