Article

Brain cellular localization of endothelin receptors A and B in a rodent model of diffuse traumatic brain injury.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, 9312 Scott Hall, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, 540 East Canfield, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.
Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.33). 02/2010; 168(3):820-30.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Endothelin-1 exerts potent vasoconstrictor and vasodilatory effects through its actions on its receptors A (ETrA) and B (ETrB), respectively. While ETrA and B have classically been thought to be expressed on vascular cell types, more recent evidence suggests that, particularly following brain injury, their expression may be seen in other, non-vascular cell types. To date no studies have comprehensively studied the cellular location of endothelin receptors following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Therefore, this study investigates the cellular localization of ETrA and B in normal and traumatized brains using an impact acceleration device. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to TBI by weight drop (450 g) from either 1.5, a distance known to elicit mild TBI in the absence of changed in cerebral blood flow (CBF) or 2 m, a distance shown to cause a significant reduction in CBF. One set of impacted brains were processed for Western determination of ETrA and B expression. Another set were processed for immunofluorescence (IF). For IF, ETrA and ETrB antibodies were combined with cell markers for neurons, astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells of blood vessels. While ETrA and B was upregulated after more moderate to severe injury (2 m) overall receptor expression was unchanged in response to mild trauma (1.5 m). Double labeling IF confirmed prominent ETrA and ETrB labeling in NeuN labeled pyramidal neurons and interneurons in sensorymotor cortex (smCx) and hippocampus (hipp) post TBI. ETrA rather than ETrB was preferentially co-localized in vascular smooth muscle cells. After injury, a subpopulation of astrocytes in white matter co-localized ETrA but not ETrB. Localization of either receptor in endothelial cells was sparse. No prominent IF was detected in microglia and oligodendrocytes. Taken together with previous findings in other pathological states that show an apparent shift in the localization of ETrA and B, the observed receptor shifts in this work may underlie the ET-1-mediated pathotrajectory of TBI including hypoperfusion.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
67 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endothelin-1 (ET1) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide implicated in the cerebrovascular alterations occurring in stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and brain trauma. Brain or circulating levels of ET1 are elevated in these conditions and in risk factors for cerebrovascular diseases. Most studies on the cerebrovascular effects of ET1 have focused on vascular smooth muscle constriction, and little is known about the effect of the peptide on cerebrovascular regulation. We tested the hypothesis that ET1 increases cerebrovascular risk by disrupting critical mechanisms regulating cerebral blood flow. Male C57Bl6/J mice equipped with a cranial window were infused intravenously with vehicle or ET1, and somatosensory cortex blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry. ET1 infusion increased mean arterial pressure and attenuated the blood flow increase produced by neural activity (whisker stimulation) or neocortical application of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine but not A23187. The cerebrovascular effects of ET1 were abrogated by the ETA receptor antagonist BQ123 and were not related to vascular oxidative stress. Rather, the dysfunction was dependent on Rho-associated protein kinase activity. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrated that ET1 suppresses endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production, assessed by its metabolite nitrite, an effect associated with Rho-associated protein kinase-dependent changes in the phosphorylation state of endothelial NO synthase. Collectively, these novel observations demonstrate that increased ET1 plasma levels alter key regulatory mechanisms of the cerebral circulation by modulating endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation and NO production through Rho-associated protein kinase. The ET1-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction may increase cerebrovascular risk by lowering cerebrovascular reserves and increasing the vulnerability of the brain to cerebral ischemia.
    Hypertension 08/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose—Systemic inflammation contributes to diverse acute and chronic brain pathologies, and extensive evidence implicates inflammation in stroke susceptibility and poor outcome. Here we investigate whether systemic inflammation alters cerebral blood flow during reperfusion after experimental cerebral ischemia. Methods—Serial diffusion and perfusion-weighted MRI was performed after reperfusion in Wistar rats given systemic (intraperitoneal) interleukin-1β or vehicle before 60-minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. The expression and location of endothelin-1 was assessed by polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, and immunofluorescence. Results—Systemic interleukin-1 caused a severe reduction in cerebral blood flow and increase in infarct volume compared with vehicle. Restriction in cerebral blood flow was observed alongside activation of the cerebral vasculature and upregulation of the vasoconstricting peptide endothelin-1 in the ischemic penumbra. A microthrombotic profile was also observed in the vasculature of rats receiving interleukin-1. Blockade of endothelin-1 receptors reversed this hypoperfusion, reduced tissue damage, and improved functional outcome. Conclusions—These data suggest patients with a raised inflammatory profile may have persistent deficits in perfusion after reopening of an occluded vessel. Future therapeutic strategies to interrupt the mechanism identified could lead to enhanced recovery of penumbra in patients with a heightened inflammatory burden and a better outcome after stroke.
    Stroke 09/2014; · 6.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of intermittent hypoxia, mimicking sleep apnea, on axonal integrity, blood-brain barrier permeability, and cognitive function of mice. Forty-seven C57BL mice were exposed to intermittent or sham hypoxia, alternating 30s of progressive hypoxia and 30s of reoxigenation, during 8h/day. The axonal integrity in cerebellum was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Short- and long-term memories were assessed by novel object recognition test. The levels of endothelin-1 were measured by ELISA. Blood-brain barrier permeability was quantified by Evans Blue dye. After 14 days, animals exposed to intermittent hypoxia showed hypomyelination in cerebellum white matter and higher serum levels of endothelin-1. The short and long-term memories in novel object recognition test was impaired in the group exposed to intermittent hypoxia as compared to controls. Blood-brain barrier permeability was similar between the groups. These results indicated that hypomyelination and impairment of short- and long-term working memories occurred in C57BL mice after 14 days of intermittent hypoxia mimicking sleep apnea. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Brain Research 12/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor