Lifetime prevalence and incidence of parasomnias in a population of young adult Nigerians.
ABSTRACT Lifetime prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for parasomnias were determined. Past experiences of non-REM, REM, and sleep-transition parasomnias were recorded. Diaries of night sleep duration, parasomnias, perception of aliens, levels of physical activity, headaches and intake of all substances, drugs, and tobacco were kept for 14 consecutive days. A total of 276 subjects were studied. Lifetime prevalences (95% CI) were 725 (668-776) for occurrence of any parasomnia, 43 (25-74) for sleepwalking, 112 (80-155) for sleep terror, 475 (416-533) for nightmares, 225 (179-277) for sleep paralysis, 43 (25-74) for sleep starts, 322 (270-380) for sleep talking, and 344 (291-402) for enuresis. Incidences (95% CI) were 210 (166-262) for occurrence of any parasomnia, 14 (6-37) for sleepwalking, 11 (4-31) for sleep terror, 170 (131-219) for confusional arousal, 18 (8-42) for nightmares, 14 (6-37) for sleep paralysis, 33 (17-61) for sleep starts, and 4 (1-20) for sleep enuresis. Multivariate analysis showed associations of increase occurrence of parasomnias and duration of sleep >7 h (p < 0.05) and intake of alcohol (p < 0.001), but heavy workload before sleep was associated with decreased occurrence of parasomnias (p < 0.01). Gender, smoking, caffeinated drinks, hypnotics, and headaches were not associated with parasomnias. Incidence of presence of aliens (95% CI) in the room was 25(0/infinity) (12-51). This study shows that more than 70% of the population have experienced parasomnias at any time in the past. Nightmares, enuresis, sleep paralysis and night terrors are the commonest parasomnias experienced in the past, while confusional arousal, sleep starts, and nightmares are the commonest parasomnias currently experienced. Incidence estimates show that all parasomnias persist into adulthood at reduced rates, but reduction of occurrence was greatest for enuresis. Long duration of night sleep and intake of alcohol predisposed subjects to higher occurrence of parasomnias.
Article: A case of adult night terrors[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Night terrors are intense, often traumatic, and potentially dangerous events during nonrapid eye movement sleep; their etiology remains unknown and different protocols of variable efficacy have addressed the physiological and psychological aspects of this disorder. We present the case of a 58-year-old man who was treated for night terrors. The patient associated his disorder with persistent nightmares. After diagnosis with the use of ambulatory polysomnography and infrared video recording, sleep-education sessions were used to clarify the differences between the nightmares and night terrors, and help the patient reconceptualize the physiological and psychological dimensions of his condition. The patient exhibited marked improvement after intervention. This study highlights the benefits of providing an alternative explanatory model for a patient who has constructed a dysfunctional explanation of his condition. The study also offers some considerations about the nature of patient perceptions and their impact on the disorder.Tzu Chi Medical Journal 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.tcmj.2013.11.001
Sleep Medicine 01/2012; 14(3). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2012.09.014 · 3.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sleep paralysis has been studied in different countries and regions, but it has rarely been investigated in mainland China. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of sleep paralysis and examine features of and factors associated with sleep paralysis (SP) among Chinese adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed by using self-administrated questionnaires distributed to junior and senior high school students. The prevalence of sleep paralysis was determined from 11 754 completed questionnaires (overall response rate: 95.1%). The relationship of sleep paralysis to personal (age, gender), lifestyle (smoking, drinking alcohol), and community (rural or urban) characteristics and sleep status (sleep duration, nap time, bedtime, subjective sleep quality) were analyzed, and the features of sleep paralysis were investigated. We found that the prevalence of sleep paralysis in this population was 6.77%. The prevalence of sleep paralysis increased significantly from junior to senior high school regardless of sleep duration, naptime, bedtime, or mental health status. Logistic regression analysis revealed that risk factors for sleep paralysis included female sex, drinking alcohol, low subjective sleep quality, and living in a rural area. Major features of sleep paralysis included the inability to move (92%) and a sense of weight on chest/difficulty breathing (43%). The results of this study suggest that in order to reduce the incidence of SP, health education should be used to promote the importance of regular sleep habits for adolescents.Sleep and Biological Rhythms 01/2014; 12(1). DOI:10.1111/sbr.12045 · 0.76 Impact Factor