Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in acute myocardial infarction and its impact on hospital outcomes.
ABSTRACT To ascertain the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with acute myocardial infarction; to study the impact of the metabolic syndrome on hospital outcomes; and to find out the association of each component of the metabolic syndrome with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Coronary care unit, Department of Medicine, B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.
Hospital-based cross-sectional study.
A total of 84 unselected consecutive patients hospitalized with AMI (diagnosed on the basis of WHO criteria) were categorized according to NCEP ATP III criteria.
Data was analyzed by using the Student's t test and Chi-square test.
Among the 84 AMI patients, 22 (26.19%) fulfilled the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Patients with the metabolic syndrome were older (86% were >50 years of age) and females (27%) were more affected than males (25%). In-hospital case fatality was higher in patients having the metabolic syndrome (5/22) than in those without the syndrome (3/62). Among the five components of the metabolic syndrome, the triglyceride levels had the highest positive predictive value (62%) in AMI; this was followed by fasting blood glucose levels (55%).
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is 26.19%; it is associated with high mortality; among its components, the triglyceride level has the highest positive predictive value in AMI patients.
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ABSTRACT: The classification of diabetes mellitus and the tests used for its diagnosis were brought into order by the National Diabetes Data Group of the USA and the second World Health Organization Expert Committee on Diabetes Mellitus in 1979 and 1980. Apart from minor modifications by WHO in 1985, little has been changed since that time. There is however considerable new knowledge regarding the aetiology of different forms of diabetes as well as more information on the predictive value of different blood glucose values for the complications of diabetes. A WHO Consultation has therefore taken place in parallel with a report by an American Diabetes Association Expert Committee to re-examine diagnostic criteria and classification. The present document includes the conclusions of the former and is intended for wide distribution and discussion before final proposals are submitted to WHO for approval. The main changes proposed are as follows. The diagnostic fasting plasma (blood) glucose value has been lowered to > or =7.0 mmol l(-1) (6.1 mmol l(-1)). Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) is changed to allow for the new fasting level. A new category of Impaired Fasting Glycaemia (IFG) is proposed to encompass values which are above normal but below the diagnostic cut-off for diabetes (plasma > or =6.1 to <7.0 mmol l(-1); whole blood > or =5.6 to <6.1 mmol l(-1)). Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) now includes gestational impaired glucose tolerance as well as the previous GDM. The classification defines both process and stage of the disease. The processes include Type 1, autoimmune and non-autoimmune, with beta-cell destruction; Type 2 with varying degrees of insulin resistance and insulin hyposecretion; Gestational Diabetes Mellitus; and Other Types where the cause is known (e.g. MODY, endocrinopathies). It is anticipated that this group will expand as causes of Type 2 become known. Stages range from normoglycaemia to insulin required for survival. It is hoped that the new classification will allow better classification of individuals and lead to fewer therapeutic misjudgements.Diabetic Medicine 07/1998; 15(7):539-53. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients without a cardiovascular history. We investigated whether the metabolic syndrome is related to the extent of vascular damage in patients with various manifestations of vascular disease. The study population of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 502 patients recently diagnosed with coronary heart disease (CHD), 236 with stroke, 218 with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and 89 with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Carotid Intima Media Thickness (IMT), Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) and albuminuria were used as non-invasive markers of vascular damage and adjusted for age and sex if appropriate. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the study population was 45%. In PAD patients this was 57%; in CHD patients 40%, in stroke patients 43% and in AAA patients 45%. Patients with the metabolic syndrome had an increased mean IMT (0.98 vs 0.92mm, P-value <0.01), more often a decreased ABPI (14% vs 10%, P-value 0.06) and increased prevalence of albuminuria (20% vs 15%, P-value 0.03) compared to patients without this syndrome. An increase in the number of components of the metabolic syndrome was associated with an increase in mean IMT (P-value for trend <0.001), lower ABPI (P-value for trend <0.01) and higher prevalence albuminuria (P-value for trend <0.01). In patients with manifest vascular disease the presence of the metabolic syndrome is associated with advanced vascular damage.European Heart Journal 03/2004; 25(4):342-8. · 14.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological study among urban subjects in western India to determine prevalence of diabetes, insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) and their risk factors. Randomly selected adults > or =20 years were studied using stratified sampling. Target sample was 1,800 (men 960, women 840). 1123 subjects (response 62.4%) were evaluated and blood samples were available in 532 men and 559 women (n=1091, 60.6%). Measurement of anthropometric variables, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids was performed. Atherosclerosis risk factors were determined using current guidelines. Diabetes was diagnosed when the subject was a known diabetic or fasting blood glucose was > or =126 mg/dl, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) diagnosed when fasting glucose was 110-125 mg/dl. IRS was diagnosed when any three of-IFG, high triglycerides >150 mg/dl, low HDL cholesterol (men<40 mg/dl, women<50 mg/dl), central obesity (men>102 cm, women>88 cm), or high normal blood pressure (>130/>85 mmHg) or hypertension-were present. Diabetes was present in 70 men (13.2%) and 64 women (11.5%). Age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 9.3% in men (95% confidence intervals (CI) 6.7-11.8), 8.1% in women (CI 5.8-10.4) and 8.6% overall (CI 6.9-10.3). IFG was in 28 men (5.3%) and 29 women (5.2%). IRS was present in 52 men (9.8%) and 114 women (20.4%) with age-adjusted prevalence of 7.9% in men (CI 6.7-9.1) and 17.5% in women (CI 14.4-20.6) with an overall prevalence of 12.8% (CI 10.8-14.8). Other metabolic abnormalities of IRS in men and women were high triglycerides in 32.1 and 28.6%, low HDL cholesterol in 54.9 and 90.2%; central obesity in 21.8 and 44.0%, and high normal blood pressure or hypertension in 35.5 and 32.4%. IFG subjects had similar atherosclerosis risk factor profile as normal subjects while those with IRS and diabetes had significantly greater prevalence of obesity, central obesity, hypertension, high triglycerides and low HDL (P<0.01). There is s significant prevalence of diabetes and IRS in this urban Indian population. Subjects with diabetes as well as IRS have greater prevalence of obesity, central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL as compared with normal subjects.Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 08/2003; 61(1):69-76. · 2.74 Impact Factor