Variation in surgical management of vesicoureteral reflux: influence of hospital and patient factors.
ABSTRACT Controversy exists over surgical procedure choice for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children. Either ureteral reimplantation (UR) or a newer procedure, endoscopic injection (EI), may be chosen; however, the factors that determine procedure choice for any individual patient are unclear. The objective of this study was to identify patient and hospital factors associated with the choice of EI for children undergoing antireflux surgery.
We searched the Pediatric Health Information System, a national database collected by freestanding children's hospitals. We identified children aged <18 years with primary VUR who underwent surgery (UR or EI) between 2003 and 2008. We used multivariate logistic regression models to evaluate whether the type of procedure performed was associated with hospital-level factors including individual hospital, hospital region, size, and teaching status, as well as patient features including age, race, gender, and insurance type.
We identified 15026 children with primary VUR who underwent antireflux surgery between 2003 and 2008. Of these, 3611 children (24%) were treated at hospitals that performed reimplant only. Among children treated at institutions offering both procedures, 5562 (49%) underwent injection and 5853 (51%) underwent reimplant. Patients who received EI were significantly older and more likely to be girls, white, and publicly insured than those who had UR. They were more likely to have been treated at hospitals that were larger, were teaching hospitals, or were located in larger metropolitan areas or the South rather than the Northeast. After adjusting for other covariates, the treating hospital was the most important factor predicting procedure choice.
The hospital at which a patient receives treatment is the single most important feature that drove procedure choice for children with primary VUR. The patient's age, gender, insurance status, and disease severity played a smaller, although significant, role.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Controversy exists regarding the benefit of open anti-reflux surgery (OS) in reducing the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI). We, therefore, reviewed our short and long term data in children who have undergone OS. METHODS: 153 children (131F, 22M; ages 2-16 yrs, mean 8 yrs) underwent OS from 1990 to 2008. Reasons for presentation were UTI-131; sibling survey-19; prenatal hydronephrosis-3. Major reasons for OS were: breakthrough UTI-74 (48%), high grade (IV or V)-49 (32%), poor compliance with prophylaxis-15 (10%). Of 153 pre-operative DMSA scans, 60 (39%) had defects. Post-operative studies were performed 6 months after surgery and 151 (99%) had negative voiding cystourethrograms (VCUG's). All underwent urine cultures 6 months post-op and prophylaxis was stopped. 56 (37%) were later contacted at an average 7 yrs post-op (range: 2-13 yrs). RESULTS: 23 (15% of 153 followed short term, 40% of 56 followed long term)-20F, 3M-had non-febrile UTI's (nfUTI's) and one girl (0.6%) had a febrile UTI (fUTI). Of those who had nfUTI's 7 (30%) had high grade reflux and 16 (70%) had pre-op breakthrough UTI's. 11 (48%) had DMSA scans with defects. 2 had UTI's within 1 year after a negative VCUG and 21 had UTI's later (1-8 yrs). 1 girl had a fUTI 1 month after a negative VCUG. CONCLUSIONS: Successful OS effectively eliminates fUTI. Families should be counseled that nfUTI may occur many years after surgery, especially in girls with a history of breakthrough UTI and renal scarring.Journal of pediatric urology 06/2012; · 1.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To report our experience of open ureteroneocystostomy after failed endoscopic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical charts of 787 children who entered our dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (DxHA) endoscopic injection program for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) treatment between May 2000 and December 2009 were reviewed. Fifty-one of these patients were submitted to open ureteroneocystostomy for complete resolution of VUR. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients (55%) were female. Median age at surgery was 65 months (range: 26-182). Median time going from first endoscopic injection until open surgery was 13 months (range 1-58). Surgical ureteral reimplantation was bilateral in 62.7% of the cases. Of a total of 83 operated ureters, nine were duplex ureters, nine were megaureters, six were ectopic, and two had periureteral diverticulum. Mean operative time was 70 min (range 45-120 min). There were no intra-operative complications. Follow-up VCUG showed complete resolution of VUR in 98% of patients. There was only one right-sided grade III VUR that persisted after bilateral reimplantation. It resolved with a single subureteral DxHA injection. CONCLUSIONS: Ureteroneocystostomy after a failed endoscopic treatment can achieve successful results in a high percentage of patients with minimal complications.Journal of pediatric urology 08/2012; · 1.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Success rates of ureteral reimplantation for primary vesicoureteral reflux are high. Few studies document the natural history of children with persistent vesicoureteral reflux. We reviewed their clinical outcomes and long-term resolution. We performed a retrospective review of all children with persistent vesicoureteral reflux (grade 1 or greater) into the reimplanted ureter(s) on initial cystogram after reimplantation for primary vesicoureteral reflux at our institution from January 1990 to December 2002. We evaluated subsequent cystograms (graded on the 3-point radionuclide cystogram scale), surgery and urinary tract infection. We performed survival analyses of time to resolution of persistent (grade 1 or greater) and clinically significant (grade 2 or greater) vesicoureteral reflux in patients with more than 1 postoperative cystogram. Of 965 patients 59 (94 ureters) had persistent vesicoureteral reflux (6.1%), including 19 grade 1/3, 29 grade 2/3 and 11 grade 3/3. Median patient age at reimplantation was 1.9 years (range 0.8 to 5.1) and 62.7% were female. Preoperative vesicoureteral reflux grade was 2/3 in 42.4% and 3/3 in 57.6%, and 30.5% of patients had ureteral tapering. Median followup was 47.1 months (IQR 19.3-650.3). Reflux was resolved in 26 of 36 (72.2%) patients and median time to resolution was 20.4 months. Grade 2 or greater reflux on postoperative cystogram resolved in 21 of 32 (65.6%) patients and median time to resolution was 20.4 months. There were 10 patients with persistent vesicoureteral reflux at last cystogram, grade 1 or 2 in 9 and 3/3 in 1 patient. One patient underwent repeat reimplantation for persistent vesicoureteral reflux and 7 (13%) had postoperative febrile urinary tract infection at a median of 37 months postoperatively (IQR 1.7-64.4). Persistent vesicoureteral reflux after reimplantation resolves spontaneously in most children and can be managed nonoperatively with good long-term outcomes.The Journal of urology 08/2012; 188(4 Suppl):1474-9. · 4.02 Impact Factor