Diabetes Genes and Prostate Cancer in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

Human Genetics Center and Division of Epidemiology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.32). 02/2010; 19(2):558-65. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0902
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is a known inverse association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and prostate cancer (PrCa) that is poorly understood. Genetic studies of the T2D-PrCa association may provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of this association. We evaluated associations in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study between PrCa and nine T2D single nucleotide polymorphisms from genome-wide association studies of T2D (in CDKAL1, CDKN2A/B, FTO, HHEX, IGF2BP2, KCNJ11, PPARG, SLC30A8, and TCF7L2) and four T2D single nucleotide polymorphisms from pre-genome-wide association studies (in ADRB2, CAPN10, SLC2A2, and UCP2). From 1987 to 2000, there were 397 incident PrCa cases among 6,642 men ages 45 to 64 years at baseline. We used race-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to estimate associations between PrCa and increasing number of T2D risk-raising alleles. PrCa was positively associated with the CAPN10 rs3792267 G allele [hazard ratio (HR) 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.44] and inversely associated with the SLC2A2 rs5400 Thr110 allele (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72, 1.00), the UCP2 rs660339 Val55 allele (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73, 0.97) and the IGF2BP2 rs4402960 T allele (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.02; blacks only). The TCF7L2 rs7903146 T allele was inversely associated with PrCa using a dominant genetic model (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65-0.97). Further knowledge of T2D gene-PrCa mechanisms may improve understanding of PrCa etiology.

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    • "The association between these two diseases could also be explained via pleiotropy, whereby specific genetic variants affect both type 2 diabetes and prostate cancer risk, independently [4]. Several genes recently identified in type 2 diabetes GWA studies have also been found to be associated with prostate cancer risk [3] [5] [6] [7]. "
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    International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics 01/2013; 4(1):49-60.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide association studies enlarged our knowledge about the genetic background of type 2 diabetes. This review provides an overview of the role of these novel genetic findings for the pathophysiology, prediction and treatment of type 2 diabetes. The genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes appears to be determined by many common variants in multiple gene loci with low effect sizes. Although at least 36 diabetes-associated genes were identified, only about 10% of the heritability of type 2 diabetes can be explained. Most of the discovered gene variants have been linked to beta-cell dysfunction rather than insulin resistance, which might challenge established thinking of type 2 diabetes as a predominant disorder of insulin action. Genetic data can lead to statistically significant, but not to clinically relevant contributions to risk prediction for type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, preliminary evidence suggests interactions between genotypes and response to lifestyle changes or drug treatment. Future studies need to target the issue of hidden heritability and to detect the causal gene variants within the identified gene loci. Improved understanding of the genetic contribution to type 2 diabetes may then help addressing the questions whether genotyping is useful to predict individual diabetes risk, identifies individual responsiveness to preventive and therapeutic interventions or at least allows for breaking down type 2 diabetes into smaller, clinically meaningful subtypes.
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