No improvement in cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese subjects after supplementation with vitamin D3 for 1 year. J Intern Med

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
Journal of Internal Medicine (Impact Factor: 6.06). 10/2009; 267(5):462-72. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2009.02181.x
Source: PubMed


Cross-sectional studies indicate vitamin D to be of importance for glucose tolerance, blood pressure and serum lipids, but whether supplementation with vitamin D would improve cardio-vascular risk factors is not known.
The study was a 1 year, double blind placebo-controlled intervention trial performed at the University Hospital of North Norway from November 2005 to October 2007. Subjects. A total of 438 overweight or obese subjects, 21-70 years old, were included and 330 completed the study.
The subjects were randomized to vitamin D (cholecalciferol, vitamin D(3)) 40 000 IU per week (DD group), vitamin D 20 000 IU per week (DP group), or placebo (PP group). All subjects were given 500 mg calcium daily.
Fasting serum lipids and blood pressure were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test performed at start and end of the study.
At baseline the mean serum 25(OH)D levels were 58 nmol L(-1) (all subjects) and increased to 140 and 101 nmol L(-1) in the DD and DP groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between the three groups regarding change in measures of glucose metabolism or serum lipids. In the DP group, there was a slight but significant increase in systolic blood pressure compared with the placebo group.
Our results do not support a positive effect of vitamin D on glucose tolerance, blood pressure or serum lipids. Further studies in subjects with low serum 25(OH)D levels combined with impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension or dyslipidaemia are needed.

Download full-text


Available from: Monica Sneve, Jun 02, 2015
8 Reads
  • Source
    • "wk, United States No lipid benefit; vitamin D repletion failed to improve lipid profile Elevated risk for CVD (with at least one of the numerous significant CVD risk factors) Jorde et al (2010) 58 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among American postmenopausal women and all adult Americans. The medical community and the lay community have recently become intrigued with vitamin D and its potential role in reducing the risk of CVD. Research findings from multiple retrospective studies, few prospective studies, and recent nonhuman primate studies have been inconsistent and conflicting. The objective of this study is to review what is known about the topic, what questions remain unanswered, and where the research community should be focusing. A literature search was conducted through PubMed and Google Scholar up to August 1, 2014. One hundred six articles, including 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials, relevant to the study topic were identified. All studies were stratified based on study design and primary outcome. The effects of vitamin D on CVD were reviewed and summarized. Although there is an abundance of observational studies suggesting an association with CVD protection, the most well-controlled randomized human trial data available show no benefit of vitamin D on CVD. However, highly controlled nonhuman primate studies indicate a beneficial relationship. Well-designed research, with CVD as primary outcome, is needed to help bridge the gap in our knowledge on this topic. In the meantime, caution should be applied to avoid overdiagnosis and overtreatment of vitamin D deficiency.
    Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 01/2015; 22(5). DOI:10.1097/GME.0000000000000399 · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "(OH) 2 D, which has been associated with an increase in lipogenesis and lipolysis [28]. We found a positive but non-significant association between high-density lipoprotein levels and supplementation with vitamin D. Other randomized clinical trials had similar findings [23] [24] [26], with differences in the mean concentrations of HDL slightly lower to 3 [24], or close to 1 mg/dL [23]. However, there are studies of this relationship generated discordant findings [28] [29]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background & aims Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease that has become an increasing public health problem. Dyslipidemia is especially relevant in vulnerable populations such as postmenopausal women. Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been associated with an unfavourable lipid profile. Due to contradictory findings from intervention trials, we investigated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum lipids in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Methods One hundred and four postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to 1 of 2 groups taking a daily tablet for 6 months: a group consuming 4000 IU tablets of a vitamin D supplement (vitamin D group n = 52) or a group consuming placebo tablets (placebo group n = 52). Results Ninety nine percent of participants completed the trial. In the vitamin D group mean serum levels of 25(OH)D3 improved significantly at the end of the follow-up period (+25.5 nmol/L; P = <0.001). Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant changes in low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and total cholesterol concentrations, but did identify a greater decrease in serum triglycerides in the vitamin D group. The average effect of supplementation on the treated group was −34.24 mg/dL (P = 0.021), while the average treatment effect was −31.8 mg/dL (P = 0.023). Conclusions Our results suggest that supplementation with vitamin D (4000 IU/d) may have a beneficial effect on serum triglyceride levels without otherwise affecting levels of other lipids. This trial was registered at as NCT01019642.
    Clinical Nutrition 10/2014; 34(5). DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2014.10.002 · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Indeed, bariatric surgical procedures may induce malabsorption; therefore, the combination of both low preoperative vitamin concentration and malabsorption may render these patients more prone to severe vitamin D deficiencies. Supplementation with vitamin D should be considered before and after surgery [71]. In any case, clinical studies to determine optimal treatment guidelines for the surgical and nonsurgical population with obesity are warranted. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The skin synthesis of vitamin D represents the first step of a metabolic pathway whose features have been extensively studied and clarified in the last decades. In particular, the production of active and inactive forms of the hormone and the actions of the corresponding enzymes have offered new insights into the knowledge of vitamin D metabolism. Additionally, the description of the different organs and tissues expressing the vitamin D receptor and its possible functions, as well as its genetic determinants, have allowed focusing on the interrelationship between vitamin D and many physiological and pathological functions. In this context, many studies reported the association between vitamin D and adipose tissue metabolism, as well as the possible role of the hormone in obesity, weight, and fat mass distribution. Finally, many reports focused on the vitamin D-related effects on skeletal muscle, particularly on the mechanisms by which vitamin D could directly affect muscle mass and strength. This paper is mainly aimed to review vitamin D metabolism and its relationship with obesity and skeletal muscle function.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 08/2014; 2014:841248. DOI:10.1155/2014/841248 · 1.95 Impact Factor
Show more