Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among American Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Prevalence, Racial/Ethnic Differences, and Viral Interactions
ABSTRACT Little is known about hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the United States. We prospectively enrolled 1,257 patients with chronic HCV infection from two medical centers in New York City. A total of 61.5% (95% confidence interval, 58.8%-64.2%) had evidence of prior exposure to HBV (hepatitis B core antibody-positive), whereas 5.8% (95% confidence interval, 4.5%-7.1%) had dual infection with HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen-positive). Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified age <40 years, Asian race, injection drug use, and a greater number of lifetime sexual partners as independent risk factors for HBV-HCV dual infection. Liver biopsy results in 26 HBV-HCV-infected and 658 HCV-monoinfected patients showed that stage 3 or 4 fibrosis was significantly more common in those with HBV-HCV dual infection (84.6% versus 29.9%; P < 0.001). Patients infected with HBV and HCV had significantly lower median HCV RNA levels (1.3 versus 4.5 x 10(6) copies/mL; P < 0.001) and were less likely to have HCV RNA levels > or =5 x 10(6) copies/mL (12.3% versus 45.4%; P < 0.001) than those who had HCV monoinfection. All five patients with HBV-HCV dual infection who had undetectable HBV DNA levels had HCV RNA levels > or =5 x 10(6) copies/mL. Conclusion: American patients with chronic HCV infection should be tested for HBV, especially younger patients, Asians, injection drug users, and those with an increased number of lifetime sexual partners. The presence of severe liver disease and HBV-HCV viral interactions in patients with dual infection necessitates careful but aggressive clinical management, although the optimal strategy remains to be determined.
- SourceAvailable from: Alexander Augusto Martinez
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- "Panama is a country with a high diversity of growing foreign communities; the Chinese population is a large example (INEC 2011). In the metropolitan areas of several developed cities (Lavanchy 2004, Pollack et al. 2006, Bini & Perumalswami 2010, Kallman et al. 2011), there is growing evidence of a high prevalence of HBV in Asian populations, but little is known regarding the molecular characteristics of the virus in these populations . To successfully implement a universal HBV vaccination program in Central American countries, it will be necessary to study the prevalence and molecular characteristics of the HBV genotypes that infect the risk groups in the region. "
ABSTRACT: Despite the effectiveness of current hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines, it is estimated that 350 million individuals suffer from chronic HBV infection and more than 50% of these affected individuals live on the Asian continent. Panama is a country with a great diversity of foreign groups; the Chinese community is a large example of this phenomenon. There is an urgent need to perform studies that evaluate the prevalence and the genetic diversity of HBV in this community. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HBV and its genotypes and mutant variants in the Chinese population residing in Panama. In total, 320 subjects were enrolled in the study. Forty-two subjects (13.1%) were positive for HBsAg and HBV-DNA from 18 subjects revealed the presence of genotypes B2 and C1. Secondary mutations associated with drug resistance at positions rtV207L and rtN239T of the reverse transcriptase gene were identified. Additionally, the mutation pair A1762T/G1764A was found in three samples and the mutation G1896A was detected in an HBeAg-negative subject. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study to report high HBV prevalence rates in resident ethnic Chinese in Central America and the presence of genotypes B2 and C1 in this region.Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 08/2013; 108(5):541-7. DOI:10.1590/0074-0276108052013002 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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- "In the present study, the 5-year cumulative incidence of HBsAg seroconversion was 8.3%. The fact that a substantially higher rate of HBsAg seroconversion was found in our study as compared to studies of CHB monoinfection suggests that HCV superinfection may interact with HBV and enhance the appearance of anti-HBs after loss of HBsAg , . "
ABSTRACT: Interferon-α/ribavirin combination therapy might promote hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance in patients dually infected with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV), but the long-term effect remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the rate of and the factors associated with HBsAg seroclearance during long-term follow-up after interferon-α/ribavirin combination therapy in HBV/HCV dually-infected patients. Eighty-one patients who received interferon-α/ribavirin combination therapy for 24 weeks with a follow-up period of >24 weeks were enrolled. HBV serological markers and HBV DNA were determined every 6 months. Early and late HBsAg seroclearance were defined as HBsAg loss in less or more than 6 months after end-of-treatment, respectively. Fifteen (18.5%) patients had HBsAg seroclearance during a mean follow-up period of 3.4 (0.5-5.1) years. The 5-year cumulative incidence was 25.6%. Baseline cirrhosis and HBV DNA negativity 1 year after end-of-treatment were independently predictive of HBsAg seroclearance with an odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 16.6, 1.8-153 and 9.2, 1.4-62.1, respectively, by Cox regression hazard analysis. Four patients developed early and 11 developed late HBsAg seroclearance, respectively. Cox regression hazard analysis showed no factor was associated with early HBsAg seroclearance, whilst HBV DNA negativity 1 year after end-of-treatment was the only significant factor predicting late HBsAg loss (OR, 43.0; CI, 2.5-745). Five patients had HBsAg seroconversion with a 5-year cumulative incidence of 8.3%. HBV DNA negativity at baseline and one year after EOT had a trend for HBsAg seroconversion. HCV response did not correlate to HBsAg loss. We demonstrated that interferon-α/ribavirin had long-term effect on HBsAg seroclearance in dually HBV/HCV-infected patients. Baseline cirrhosis and seroclearance of HBV DNA 1 year after end-of-treatment were significant factors associated with HBsAg seroclearance.PLoS ONE 06/2011; 6(6):e20752. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0020752 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus infection remains a leading cause of liver disease worldwide and is currently the principal reason for liver transplantation in the United States. Although the prevalence of hepatitis C has decreased, it remains the most common blood-borne infection, and simulation studies project rising disease burden that peaks in the next decade from hepatic complications in those with long-standing disease. Over the past few years, incidence rates have remained constant, emphasizing the need to understand more completely the natural history and epidemiology of acute disease to improve preventive and screening practices. Recent advances in knowledge about interactions between the virus and host genetics offer a glimpse into future genomic-based medical treatment. This review highlights current literature in hepatitis C epidemiology, focusing especially on preventable health care-related outbreaks, hepatitis B coinfection, and molecular epidemiology. KeywordsHepatitis C–Prevalence–Incidence–Epidemiology–Risk factors–Infection control–Injections–Equipment contamination–Substance abuseCurrent Hepatitis Reports 03/2010; 10(1):19-26. DOI:10.1007/s11901-010-0063-1