Histone H3 Thr 45 phosphorylation is a replication-associated post-translational modification in S. cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT Post-translational histone modifications are crucial for the regulation of numerous DNA-templated processes, and are thought to mediate both alteration of chromatin dynamics and recruitment of effector proteins to specific regions of the genome. In particular, histone Ser/Thr phosphorylation regulates multiple nuclear functions in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including transcription, DNA damage repair, mitosis, apoptosis and sporulation. Although modifications to chromatin during replication remain poorly understood, a number of recent studies have described acetylation of the histone H3 N-terminal alpha-helix (alphaN helix) at Lys 56 as a modification that is important for maintenance of genomic integrity during DNA replication and repair. Here, we report phosphorylation of H3 Thr 45 (H3-T45), a histone modification also located within the H3 alphaN helix in S. cerevisiae. Thr 45 phosphorylation peaks during DNA replication, and is mediated by the S phase kinase Cdc7-Dbf4 as part of a multiprotein complex identified in this study. Furthermore, loss of phosphorylated H3-T45 causes phenotypes consistent with replicative defects, and prolonged replication stress results in H3-T45 phosphorylation accumulation over time. Notably, the phenotypes described here are independent of Lys 56 acetylation status, and combinatorial mutations to both Thr 45 and Lys 56 of H3 cause synthetic growth defects. Together, these data identify and characterize H3-T45 phosphorylation as a replication-associated histone modification in budding yeast.
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ABSTRACT: Cdc7 is a serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates components of the pre-Replication Complex during DNA replication initiation. Cdc7 is highly conserved, and Cdc7 orthologs have been characterized in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. Cdc7 is activated specifically during late G1/S phase by binding to its regulatory subunit, Dbf4. Drosophila melanogaster contains a Dbf4 ortholog, Chiffon, which is essential for chorion amplification in Drosophila egg chambers. However, no Drosophila ortholog of Cdc7 has been characterized as of yet. Here we report the functional and biochemical characterization of a Drosophila ortholog of Cdc7. Co-expression of Drosophila Cdc7 and Chiffon is able to complement a growth defect in yeast containing a temperature-sensitive Cdc7 mutant. Cdc7 and Chiffon physically interact, and can be co-purified from insect cells. Cdc7 phosphorylates the known Cdc7 substrates Mcm2 and histone H3 in vitro, and Cdc7 kinase activity is stimulated by Chiffon and inhibited by the Cdc7-specific inhibitor XL413. Drosophila egg chamber follicle cells deficient for Cdc7 have a defect in two types of DNA replication, endoreplication and chorion gene amplification. However, follicle cells deficient for Chiffon have a defect in chorion gene amplification, but still undergo endocycling. Our results show that Cdc7 interacts with Chiffon to form a functional Dbf4-Dependent Kinase (DDK) complex, and that Cdc7 is necessary for DNA replication in Drosophila egg chamber follicle cells. Additionally, we show that Chiffon is a member of an expanding subset of DNA replication initiation factors that are not strictly required for endoreplication in Drosophila. Copyright © 2014, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2014; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.597948 · 4.60 Impact Factor
Chemical Reviews 11/2014; DOI:10.1021/cr500350x · 45.66 Impact Factor