Preferential Expression of MUC6 in Oncocytic and Pancreatobiliary Types of Intraductal Papillary Neoplasms Highlights a Pyloropancreatic Pathway, Distinct From the Intestinal Pathway, in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis
ABSTRACT The expression of different MUC glycoproteins has helped define cellular lineage in variety of pancreatic neoplasms, and has helped identify distinct carcinogenic pathways such as the intestinal pathway characterized by diffuse/strong MUC2/CDX2 expression in intestinal-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and their associated colloid carcinomas (CCs). In this study, the expression profile of MUC6, a pyloric-type mucin, was investigated in both preinvasive and invasive pancreatic neoplasia. Florid papillary ("in-situ") components of 9 intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms (IOPNs), 24 IPMNs, and 7 mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), were analyzed immunohistochemically for MUC6 expression, as were 15 PanINs, 112 usual invasive ductal adenocarcinomas (DAs), and 14 CCs. In PanINs, MUC6 expression was limited to the very early areas of PanIN-1A that typically have pyloric features. Expression was lost in later stages. Similarly, in IOPNs or IPMNs or MCNs, MUC6 expression was detectable in the cystic or flat areas that have pyloric-like histology. However, in the more advanced (papillary) components of these neoplasms, MUC6 expression was mostly limited to the "cuboidal-cell" but was not seen in the "columnar-cell" phenotype: there was diffuse or strong expression in 8/9 IOPN and, relatively weaker but consistent expression in all 6/6 pancreatobiliary-type IPMNs; whereas virtually no expression in villous or intestinal-type IPMNs. The 7/8 gastric or foveolar-type IPMNs were also negative; in the single case with positivity, the labeling was limited to high-grade dysplastic areas. Interestingly, the papillae in MCNs were also mostly negative. Among invasive carcinomas, 39/112 DAs and only 1/14 CC expressed MUC6. In DA, the expression did not correlate with survival (P=0.94), or any of the markers of aggressiveness: more than 2-cm tumor size (P=0.76), positive surgical margins (P=0.27), lymph node metastasis (P=0.82), or high grade (P=0.08). In conclusion: (1) The expression of MUC6 in oncocytic and pancreatobiliary-type neoplasms but not in villous or intestinal-type neoplasms supports the presence of a pyloropancreatic pathway distinct from the MUC2/CDX2 expressing intestinal pathway in intraductal papillary neoplasia. (2) MUC6 expression is present in the earliest (nonpapillary) form of any type of preinvasive neoplasia regardless of whether it is PanIN or IOPN or IPMN or MCN suggesting that these entities may share some characteristics early on, but evolve along divergent pathways as they progress.
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Article: Preferential Expression of MUC6 in Oncocytic and Pancreatobiliary Types of Intraductal Papillary Neoplasms Highlights a Pyloropancreatic Pathway, Distinct From the Intestinal Pathway, in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis
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- "In addition, we confirmed the expression of CLDN18.2, but not CLDN18.1, in all of the pancreatic cancer cell lines examined using RT-PCR. These results agree with those described in several recent articles, which demonstrated an association between the gastric phenotype and early pancreatic ductal lesions (Prasad et al. 2005; Kim et al. 2002; Basturk et al. 2010). The staining results in the IPMNs were intriguing, especially in terms of the relationship between the gastric and intestinal IPMN subtypes. "
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal neoplasms exhibit gastric epithelium-like characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the expression of claudin-18 (CLDN18), a gastric epithelium-associated claudin, in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) using immunohistochemistry. We observed a high level of expression of CLDN18 in PanINs (31/32, 97%), IPMNs (61/65, 95%), and MCNs (4/5, 80%) using ordinary tissue section analysis. Furthermore, we observed a high level of CLDN18 expression in PDACs (109/156, 70%) using tissue microarray analysis. However, the normal pancreatic duct or the ductal metaplasia of the acinar cells was not immunoreactive. Comparative analysis of CLDN18 and phenotypic markers in IPMNs revealed that simultaneous expression of CLDN18 and intestinal markers frequently occurred, even in intestinal-type IPMNs. CLDN18 variant 2 mRNA was expressed and was similarly upregulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment in pancreatic cancer cell lines and in a gastric cancer cell line. An inhibitor of pan-PKC (GF109203X) completely suppressed this upregulation in pancreatic cancer cells. These results indicate that CLDN18, a marker for the early carcinogenetic process, is commonly expressed in precursor lesions of PDAC. Activation of the PKC pathway might be involved in CLDN18 expression associated with pancreatic carcinogenesis.Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 08/2011; 59(10):942-52. DOI:10.1369/0022155411420569 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease. Overall survival is typically 6 months from diagnosis. Determination of prognostic factors in pancreatic cancer that would allow identification of patients who could potentially benefit from aggressive treatment is important. However, until date, there are no established reliable prognostic factors for pancreatic cancer patients. Herein, we propose a beneficial biomarker which is significantly correlated with the prognosis in pancreatic cancer patients. Atypical protein kinase C λ/ι (aPKCλ/ι) is overexpressed and has been implicated in the progression of several cancers. We tested the expression levels of aPKCλ/ι in two types of pancreatic neoplasm, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), by immunohistochemistry. Examination of the aPKCλ/ι expression levels in surgically resected specimens of PDCA (n = 115) demonstrated that the expression levels of aPKCλ/ιin PDAC had prognostic implications, independent of the Tumor-Node-Metastasis classification and World Health Organization tumor grade. In the case of IPMNs (n = 46) also, the expression levels of aPKCλ/ιin IPMN were found to be of prognostic importance, independent of the World Health Organization histological grade or morphological type. Interestingly, high expression levels of aPKCλ/ι were significantly correlated with a worse histological grade (p = 0.010) and advanced stage of the tumor (p = 0.0050) in IPMN patients. These findings suggest that high expression levels of aPKCλ/ι could be involved in the malignant transformation of IPMNs. Based on these observations, we propose the expression level of aPKCλ/ι as a prognostic marker common to different types of pancreatic neoplasms.Pancreatology 07/2013; 13(4):360-8. DOI:10.1016/j.pan.2013.05.006 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Precise histological diagnosis is important for the successful management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). The object of this study was to determine whether cell block cytology is useful for preoperative cytomorphological grading and typing of IPMNs. The subjects were 23 patients with IPMN from whom pancreatic juice was collected via a pancreatic catheter and who subsequently underwent pancreatic resection. In 20 of the 23 cases, the quantity of cells collected for cell block cytology was sufficient to enable typing and grading of the IPMN. The rates of consistency between the results of typing and grading by cell block cytology and histological examination of the surgical specimen were 95% and 80%, respectively. Typing of the 10 main-duct/mixed-duct-type IPMNs by cell block cytology yielded 5 gastric types, 3 intestinal types, 1 oncocytic type, and 1 pancreatobiliary type, and the typing was consistent with the surgical diagnosis in all 10 cases. The results of typing of the branch-duct-type IPMNs by cell block cytology were identical to the results of histological typing in the surgical specimens in every case but one. However, the specificity of cell block cytology for grading IPMNs was 55.6%. The cell block cytological findings were fairly consistent with the histopathological features of the surgical specimens, thereby indicating that cell block cytology may be useful for preoperative and typing of IPMNs, but only play a supplementary role in grading IPMNs.Pancreatology 07/2013; 13(4):369-78. DOI:10.1016/j.pan.2013.06.003 · 2.50 Impact Factor