Judd A, Boyd K, Stöhr W, Dunn D, Butler K, Lyall H, et al. Effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate on risk of renal abnormality in HIV-1-infected children on antiretroviral therapy: a nested case-control study
ABSTRACT To investigate the association between tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use and renal abnormality in a large cohort of HIV-1-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Nested case-control study.
Patients were from the Collaborative HIV Paediatric Study, a cohort of approximately 95% of HIV-1-infected children in the UK/Ireland. Serum (but not urine) biochemistry results for 2002-2008 were obtained for 456 ART-exposed children (2-18 years) seen at seven hospitals. Cases had either confirmed hypophosphataemia DAIDS grade at least 2 or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m; three controls per case were matched by hospital. Conditional logistic regression identified risk factors for renal abnormality.
Twenty of 456 (4.4%) had hypophosphataemia, and one had eGFR less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m. Ten of 20 (50%) cases versus 11 of 60 (18%) controls had taken TDF-containing ART for a median [interquartile range (IQR)] of 18 [17-20] months, as part of second-line or salvage therapy. The hypophosphataemia incidence rate was 4.3/100 person-years in the TDF group versus 0.9/100 person-years in those not exposed to TDF. In multivariable analysis, only TDF exposure in the previous 6 months was associated with hypophosphataemia [odds ratio (OR) = 4.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-16.0, P = 0.01]. In six of 10 children with hypophosphataemia and at least four subsequent phosphate measurements, phosphate values returned to normal when TDF was stopped; in four with three measures or less, values rose but remained subnormal.
Hypophosphataemia was uncommon (4%), but was associated with prolonged TDF use, and was generally reversible following TDF withdrawal. Findings highlight the importance of continuing to monitor longer-term renal function, in particular tubular function, especially in those taking TDF. Further studies assessing urine biochemistry measures which more accurately indicate renal tubular damage are required.
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ABSTRACT: The combination of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and pregnancy presents unique management questions. Aspects of care that need to be considered include effects of hepatitis B on pregnancy, effects of pregnancy itself on the course of hepatitis B infection, treatment of hepatitis B during pregnancy and prevention of mother-to-infant transmission. Chronic HBV infection is usually mild in pregnant women, but may flare shortly after delivery. Effect of HBV infection on pregnancy outcomes are generally favorable, but may depend on severity of liver disease. Mother-to-infant transmission can be minimized by current immunoprophylaxis strategies, however, high levels of viremia in mothers may be a factor in the small but reproducible failure rate of current immunoprophylaxis strategies. Use of antivirals during pregnancy needs to be individualized. Careful planning and management of pregnancy must be done among patients with chronic HBV infection.Hepatology Research 01/2010; 40(1):31-48. DOI:10.1111/j.1872-034X.2009.00597.x · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background During stavudine phase-out plan in developing countries, tenofovir is used to substitute stavudine. However, knowledge regarding whether there is any difference of the frequency of renal injury between tenofovir/lamivudine/efavirenz and tenofovir/lamivudine/nevirapine is lacking. Methods This prospective study was conducted among HIV-infected patients who were switched NRTI from stavudine/lamivudine to tenofovir/lamivudine in efavirenz-based (EFV group) and nevirapine-based regimen (NVP group) after two years of an ongoing randomized trial. All patients were assessed for serum phosphorus, uric acid, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and urinalysis at time of switching, 12 and 24 weeks. Results Of 62 patients, 28 were in EFV group and 34 were in NVP group. Baseline characteristics and eGFR were not different between two groups. At 12 weeks, comparing mean ± SD measures between EFV group and NVP group were: phosphorus of 3.16 ± 0.53 vs. 2.81 ± 0.42 mg/dL (P = 0.005), %patients with proteinuria were 15% vs. 38% (P = 0.050). At 24 weeks, mean ± SD phosphorus and median (IQR) eGFR between the corresponding groups were 3.26 ± 0.78 vs. 2.84 ± 0.47 mg/dL (P = 0.011) and 110 (99-121) vs. 98 (83-112) mL/min (P = 0.008). In NVP group, comparing week 12 to time of switching, there was a decrement of phosphorus (P = 0.007) and eGFR (P = 0.034). By multivariate analysis, 'receiving nevirapine', 'old age' and 'low baseline serum phosphorus' were associated with hypophosphatemia at 24 weeks (P < 0.05). Receiving nevirapine and low baseline eGFR were associated with lower eGFR at 24 weeks (P < 0.05). Conclusion The frequency of tenofovir-associated renal impairment was higher in patients receiving tenofovir/lamivudine/nevirapine compared to tenofovir/lamivudine/efavirenz. Further studies regarding patho-physiology are warranted.AIDS Research and Therapy 10/2010; 7(1):37. DOI:10.1186/1742-6405-7-37 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Viral resistance occurs with a high frequency after single-dose nevirapine. We aimed to evaluate the tolerance and resistance profiles of a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) given to HIV-1-infected delivering women and their newborns. DESIGN: An open-label phase I/II trial in Cambodia, Cote d'Ivoire and South Africa. METHODS: HIV-1-infected pregnant women received zidovudine from the enrollment until the beginning of labor, when single-dose nevirapine and two tablets of TDF/FTC were given. One daily tablet of TDF/FTC was then administered for 7 days postpartum. All infants received single-dose nevirapine with single-dose TDF (13 mg/kg) and single-dose FTC (2 mg/kg) and 1 week of zidovudine. Mothers and infants were followed for 2 months. Serious adverse events, kinetic of maternal plasma HIV-1 RNA, pediatric HIV infection and genotypic resistance and viral subtype were assessed. RESULTS: Thirty-six HIV-1-infected pregnant women were enrolled: median age 28 years (interquartile range: 26-31 years), median CD4 cell count 462 cells/mul (interquartile range: 376-632) and median HIV-1 RNA 3.7 log10 copies/ml (interquartile range: 2.95-4.11). Two infants had clinical serious adverse events, including one who died (neonatal sepsis). One transient grade 3 neutropenia and two grade 3/4 hyperbilirubinemia were also reported in neonates. One HIV pediatric in-utero infection was diagnosed (2.8%; 95% confidence interval 0-15.4%). Genotypic viral resistance to nevirapine was detected in one mother out of 34 (2.9%) at one month postpartum, but was also detectable at enrollment. CONCLUSION: The combination of TDF/FTC to delivering women and their neonates appears well tolerated and to minimize the occurrence of nevirapine viral resistance.AIDS (London, England) 10/2010; 24(16-16):2481-8. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833e1659 · 6.56 Impact Factor