There has been intense interest in the role of the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), in growth and development of infants. In 2009, there are at least twelve published randomized controlled trials (RCT) assessing the effects of LCPUFA supplementation of infant formula for preterm infants and seventeen RCTs involving formula-fed term infants. In addition, at least five RCTs have investigated the effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation on infant and early child development. Collectively, the published literature has demonstrated no harm of dietary LCPUFA for infants regardless of whether they are born preterm or at term. However, developmental benefit is more consistently observed in infants born preterm. This may be explained by the fact that DHA accretion to neural tissues peaks during the fetal brain growth spurt in the last trimester of pregnancy. Infants born preterm are denied the full gestation period to accumulate DHA and are at risk of incomplete DHA accumulation. New research is focused on the timing and dose of DHA supplementation needed to optimize developmental outcomes.
"This finding is consistent with the results of other studies. Some lines of evidence demonstrated that fatty acid compositions of human breast milk such as docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid have an important role in brain development  . The results of our study may be due to the role of fatty acids in brain growth during neonatal and infancy stages . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for ADHD in children. Method. In this case-control study, 404 children between 4 and 11 years old were selected by cluster sampling method from preschool children (208 patients as cases and 196 controls). All the participants were interviewed by a child and adolescent psychiatrist to survey risk factors of ADHD. Results. Among cases, 59.3% of children were boys and 38.4% were girls, which is different to that in control group with 40.7% boys and 61.6% girls. The chi-square showed statistically significance (P value < 0.0001). The other significant factors by chi-square were fathers' somatic or psychiatric disease (P value < 0.0001), history of trauma and accident during pregnancy (P value = 0.039), abortion proceeds (P value < 0.0001), unintended pregnancy (P value < 0.0001), and history of head trauma (P value < 0.0001). Conclusions. Findings of our study suggest that maternal and paternal adverse events were associated with ADHD symptoms, but breast feeding is a protective factor.
International Journal of Pediatrics 11/2013; 2013(1):953103. DOI:10.1155/2013/953103
"We completed a computerized literature search of MEDLINE (1950–June 2010), EMBASE (2010), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINALH) (from inception to June 2010), and the Cochrane Library (2010). We supplemented this search by investigating relevant references from published reviews [2–4, 14, 15]. There was no limit on the language of publication. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) use in pregnancy has been promoted as beneficial for visual and neurobehavioural development in the fetus. However, no systematic review of the randomized trials has been conducted. The objective of this review was to evaluate potential advantages of this regiment by reviewing all randomized trials in pregnancy. Methods. Systematic review of randomized controlled studies comparing cognitive and visual achievements among infants whose mothers were treated and untreated with PUFA during gestation. Results. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, three focusing on visual and six on neurobehavioural development. Due to differing outcome measurements in the infants, the studies could not be combined into a formal meta-analysis. Synthesizing the existing data, for both visual and neurobehavioural development, most studies could not show sustained benefits to infant cognition or visual development. Conclusion. At the present time a recommendation to change practice and supplement all expecting mothers with PUFA to improve offspring vision or neurobehavioural function is not supported by existing evidence.
Obstetrics and Gynecology International 01/2012; 2012(5):591531. DOI:10.1155/2012/591531
"Because of the importance of VLCPUFAs as components of human diet, their demand is constantly increasing (e.g. being now standard components of infant formula milks) (Calder, 2004; Napier, 2007; Shapira, 2009; Agostoni, 2010; Makrides et al., 2010). Plant oils represent an important renewable resource from nature, and oilseeds provide a unique platform of low costs for the production of high-value fatty acids that can replace nonsustainable oceanic sources (Damude and Kinney, 2007, 2008; Napier, 2007; Napier and Graham, 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to manipulate plant fatty acid biosynthesis by using new biotechnological approaches has allowed the production of transgenic plants with unusual fatty acid profile and increased oil content. This review focuses on the production of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) and the increase in oil content in plants using molecular biology tools. Evidences suggest that regular consumption of food rich in VLCPUFAs has multiple positive health benefits. Alternative sources of these nutritional fatty acids are found in cold-water fishes. However, fish stocks are in severe decline because of decades of overfishing, and also fish oils can be contaminated by the accumulation of toxic compounds. Recently, there is also an increase in oilseed use for the production of biofuels. This tendency is partly associated with the rapidly rising costs of petroleum, increased concern about the environmental impact of fossil oil and the attractive need to develop renewable sources of fuel. In contrast to this scenario, oil derived from crop plants is normally contaminant free and less environmentally aggressive. Genetic engineering of the plastid genome (plastome) offers a number of attractive advantages, including high-level foreign protein expression, marker-gene excision and transgene containment because of maternal inheritance of plastid genome in most crops. Here, we describe the possibility to improve fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, production of new fatty acids and increase their content in plants by genetic engineering of plastid fatty acid biosynthesis via plastid transformation.
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