The size of the spleen by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cystic fibrosis; with and without diabetes--a novel observational study.
ABSTRACT Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be a useful tool to evaluate the volume of the pancreas. There is currently no information about the size of the spleen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients.
We investigated 51 adult volunteers: 28 pancreatic insufficient CF patients [13 with CF-related diabetes (CFRD) and 15 non-diabetic] and 23 male non-CF patients [12 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 11 healthy control subjects]. Patients with known liver cirrhosis or portal hypertension were excluded. The size of the spleen was measured in all subjects by an investigator unaware of patients' clinical status. For comparison of spleen size in the four study groups only male CF patients were included. For CF patients, spleen size was compared with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), body mass index (BMI), total number of days of intravenous (IV) antibiotic treatment for pulmonary exacerbations in year previous to study, levels of circulating white blood cells, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and exocrine function of the pancreas, as assessed by daily requirement of oral lipase.
Amongst the four study groups, spleen size was greatest in the male non-diabetic CF patients (P = 0.01). For CF patients, spleen size was greater in male compared to female patients (P = 0.012). For patients with CFRD, there was an inverse correlation between the spleen size and HbA1c (r = -0.59, P = 0.04) and the daily intake of supplementary lipase (r = -0.63, P = 0.02). The size of the spleen in patients with CFRD, but not in CF patients without CFRD, inversely correlated with the days of IV antibiotic treatment received in the year previous to the study (r = -0.67, P = 0.012). There was no correlation between spleen size and BMI, FEV1 and white blood cell counts in any group.
On MRI, the spleen size was greatest in male non-diabetic CF patients in comparison with other groups. The size of the spleen in CFRD patients was smaller when diabetes was poorly controlled, when exocrine pancreatic function was greatly impaired and in those with greater need for IV antibiotics in the year prior to the study.