Uptake and distribution of fullerenes in human mast cells.
ABSTRACT Fullerenes are carbon cages of variable size that can be derivatized with various side chain moieties resulting in compounds that are being developed into nanomedicines. Although fullerene use in several preclinical in vitro and in vivo models of disease has demonstrated their potential as diagnostic and therapeutic agents, little is known about how they enter cells, what organelles they target, and the time course for their cellular deposition. Fullerenes (C(70)) that have already been shown to be potent inhibitors of mast cell (MC)-mediated allergic inflammation were conjugated with Texas red (TR) and used in conjunction with confocal microscopy to determine mechanisms of uptake, the organelle localization, and the duration they can be detected in situ. We show that C(70)-TR are nonspecifically endocytosed into MCs, where they are shuttled throughout the cytoplasm, lysosomes, mitochondria, and into endoplasmic reticulum at different times. No nuclear or secretory granule localization was observed. The C(70)-TR remained detectable within cells at 1 week. These studies show that MCs endocytose fullerenes, where they are shuttled to organelles involved with calcium and reactive oxygen species production, which may explain their efficacy as cellular inhibitors. From the clinical editor: Fullerenes are carbon cages of variable size that have already been shown to be potent inhibitors of mast cell (MC)-mediated allergic inflammation. These were conjugated with Texas red (TR) and used in conjunction with confocal microscopy to determine mechanisms of uptake, the organelle localization, and duration, demonstrating that MCs endocytose fullerenes, which are shuttled to organelles involved with calcium and reactive oxygen species production. This intracellular trafficking may explain the efficacy of fullerenes as cellular inhibitors.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Anthony Dellinger, Jun 10, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Discovery of fullerenes and other nanosized carbon allotropes has opened a vast new field of possibilities in nanotechnology and has become one of the most promising research areas. Carbon nanomaterials have drawn interest as carriers of biologically pertinent molecules due to their distinctive physical, chemical and physiological properties. We have assigned the nomenclature “Carbon Nanotropes” to the nanosized carbon allotropes. Carbon nanotropes such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphenes, have exhibited wide applicability in drug delivery, owing to their small size and biological activity. The nanotherapeutics/diagnostics will allow a deeper understanding of human ills including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, genetic disorders and various other complications. Recently, nanomaterials with multiple functions, such as drug carrier, MRI, optical imaging, photothermal therapy, etc., have become more and more popular in the domain of cancer and other areas of research. This review is an endeavor to bring together the usefulness of the carbon nanomaterials in the field of drug delivery. The last section of the review encompasses the recent patents granted on carbon nanotropes at United State Patent Trademark Office (USPTO) in the related field.Materials 06/2015; 8(6):3068-3100. DOI:10.3390/ma8063068 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two fullerene derivatives (fullerenes 1 and 2), bearing a hydrophilic chain on the pyrrolidinic nitrogen, were developed with the aim to deliver anticancer agents to solid tumors. These two compounds showed a significantly different behaviour on human neoplastic cell lines in vitro in respect to healthy leukocytes. In particular, the pyrrolidinium ring on the fullerene carbon cage brings to a more active compound. In the present work, we describe the effects of these fullerenes on primary cultures of human monocytes and macrophages, two kinds of immune cells representing the first line of defence in the immune response to foreign materials. These compounds are not recognized by circulating monocytes while they get into macrophages. The evaluation of the pronecrotic or proapoptotic effects, analysed by means of analysis of the purinergic receptor P2X7 activation and of ROS scavenging activity, has allowed us to show that fullerene 2, but not its analogue fullerene 1, displays toxicity, even though at concentrations higher than those shown to be active on neoplastic cells.BioMed Research International 09/2014; 2015. DOI:10.1155/2015/915130 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: C60 nanoparticles, the so-called buckminsterfullerenes, have attracted great attention for medical applications as carriers, enzyme inhibitors or radical scavengers. However, publications evaluating their immunological mechanisms are still rather limited. Therefore, we aimed to analyze systematically the in vitro influence of polyhydroxy-C60 (poly-C60) and N-ethyl-polyamino-C60 (nepo-C60) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy individuals, angling their effect on proliferation, expression of surface markers, and cytokine production. We isolated PBMC from 20 healthy subjects and incubated them in a first step only with poly-C60 or nepo-C60, and in a second step together with recall antigens (purified protein derivative, tetanus toxoid, bacillus Calmette-Guérin). Proliferation was determined by (3)H-thymidine incorporation, activation of PBMC-subpopulations by flow cytometry by measurement of the activation marker CD69, and secretion of T helper cell type 1 (TH1)- (interferon-gamma [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor beta [TNF-β]), TH2- (interleukin-5 [IL-5], -13, -10) and macrophage/monocyte-related cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α) into the supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both fullerenes did not influence T cell reactivity, with no enhanced expression of CD69 and production of T cell cytokines observed, the CD4/CD8 ratio remaining unaffected. In contrast, they significantly enhanced the release of IL-6 and CD69-expression by CD56 positive natural killer cells. PBMC, which had been cultured together with the three recall antigens were not affected by both fullerenes at all. These data indicate that fullerenes do not interact with T cell reactivity but may activate cells of the innate immune system. Furthermore, they seem to act only on 'naïve' cells, which have not been prestimulated with recall antigens, there are however, large inter individual differences.International Journal of Nanomedicine 08/2012; 7:4571-80. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S33773 · 4.20 Impact Factor