Clinicopathological Prognostic Factors After Hepatectomy for Patients with Mass-Forming Type Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Relevance of the Lymphatic Invasion Index

Department of Surgery and Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
Annals of Surgical Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.94). 02/2010; 17(7):1816-22. DOI: 10.1245/s10434-010-0929-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to clarify the pathological factors in patients who underwent surgery for mass-forming type intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHC).
From 1982 to July 2004, a total of 60 liver resections for mass-forming type IHC were performed at Kyushu University and its affiliated institutions. Portal venous, lymphatic, hepatic venous, and serosal invasion was examined by univariate and multivariate analyses for their prognostic value. The portal venous (PV) invasion index was defined as follows: PV0, portal venous invasion (-) and intrahepatic metastasis (-); PV1, portal venous invasion (+) or intrahepatic metastasis (+); PV2, portal venous invasion (+) and intrahepatic metastasis (+). The lymphatic invasion (LI) index was defined as follows: LI0, lymphatic duct invasion (-) and lymph node metastasis (-); LI1, intrahepatic lymphatic duct invasion (+) or lymph node metastasis (+); LI2, intrahepatic lymphatic duct invasion (+) and lymph node metastasis (+).
In univariate analysis, statistically significant prognostic factors for poor outcome were tumor size (>5 cm), serosal invasion (+), PV1 or PV2, LI1 or LI2, histological grade (moderate and poor), hepatic venous invasion (+) and noncurative resection. After multivariate analysis, the lymphatic invasion index and histological grade were statistically independent prognostic factors for overall survival and recurrence-free survival.
In patients with mass-forming type IHC, lymphatic invasion is the most important invasion pathway, compared with serosal and portal and hepatic venous invasion. Stratification of the lymphatic invasion pathway by lymphatic invasion, including intrahepatic lymphatic duct invasion and lymph node metastasis, is a good predictor for prognosis in patients after hepatectomy for mass-forming type IHC.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Staging systems are an attempt to incorporate the biology and therapy for cancer in a way that enables categorization and prediction of oncologic outcomes. Because of unusual disease biology and complexities related to treatment intervention, efforts to develop reliable staging systems for hepatic malignancies have been challenging. This article discusses the ways in which improved understanding of these diseases has informed the evolution of prognostication systems as applied to hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic colorectal adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America 11/2014; 24(1). DOI:10.1016/j.soc.2014.09.010 · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several unfavorable prognostic factors have been proposed for peripheral cholangiocarcinoma (PCC) in patients undergoing hepatectomy, including gross type of tumor, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, a high carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level, and a positive resection margin. However, the clinical effect of a positive surgical margin on the survival of patients with PCC after hepatectomy still needs to be clarified due to conflicting results. A total of 224 PCC patients who underwent hepatic resection with curative intent between 1977 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Eighty-nine patients had a positive resection margin, with 62 having a microscopically positive margin and 27 a grossly positive margin (R2). The clinicopathological features, outcomes, and recurrence pattern were compared with patients with curative hepatectomy. PCC patients with hepatolithiasis, periductal infiltrative or periductal infiltrative mixed with mass-forming growth, higher T stage, and more advanced stage tended to have higher positive resection margin rates after hepatectomy. PCC patients who underwent curative hepatectomy had a significantly higher survival rate than did those with a positive surgical margin. When PCC patients underwent hepatectomy with a positive resection margin, the histological grade of the tumor, nodal positivity, and chemotherapy significantly affected overall survival. Locoregional recurrence was the most common pattern of recurrence. A positive resection margin had an unfavorable effect on overall survival in PCC patients undergoing hepatectomy. In these patients, the prognosis was determined by the biology of the tumor, including differentiation and nodal positivity, and chemotherapy increased overall survival.
    Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2015; 9:163-74. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S74940 · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although lymph node metastasis (LNM) has been considered an important prognostic factor for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the impact of lymph node enlargement on the prognosis of ICC, and the accuracy of diagnosis of LNM, have not been fully clarified. Using a chart review of 225 patients with ICC, we compared survival times between patients with and without lymph node enlargement, and we evaluated the accuracy of diagnosis of LNM. We also performed a multivariate analysis to determine the variables affecting overall survival in the study population. The survival time of patients without lymph node enlargement was significantly longer than that of patients with lymph node enlargement (median survival time [MST] 43.7 vs. 20.1 months; p = 0.007). However, in the group with enlarged lymph nodes, survival time was prolonged as a result of hepatectomy (MST 20.1 vs. 7.6 months; p < 0.01). The sensitivity of lymph node size and positron emission tomography-computed tomography findings for diagnosing LNM were 50.0 % (23/46) and 31.2 % (5/16), respectively, and were thus insufficient. Multivariate analysis identified the serum carcinoembryonic antigen (hazard ratio [HR] 1.830) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (HR 2.189) levels, blood transfusion (HR 1.792), intrahepatic metastasis (HR 1.988), and final stage (HR 8.684) as prognostic factors for overall survival, but lymph node enlargement was not identified as a prognostic factor. Preoperative evaluation of LNM proved to be difficult, and survival time in ICC patients with lymph node enlargement was prolonged as a result of hepatectomy. Thus, ICC patients with preoperative lymph node enlargement should not be prematurely deemed non-curative cases.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 01/2015; DOI:10.1245/s10434-014-4239-8 · 3.94 Impact Factor