Cell type specificity of chromatin organization mediated by CTCF and cohesin.
ABSTRACT CTCF sites are abundant in the genomes of diverse species but their function is enigmatic. We used chromosome conformation capture to determine long-range interactions among CTCF/cohesin sites over 2 Mb on human chromosome 11 encompassing the beta-globin locus and flanking olfactory receptor genes. Although CTCF occupies these sites in both erythroid K562 cells and fibroblast 293T cells, the long-range interaction frequencies among the sites are highly cell type specific, revealing a more densely clustered organization in the absence of globin gene activity. Both CTCF and cohesins are required for the cell-type-specific chromatin conformation. Furthermore, loss of the organizational loops in K562 cells through reduction of CTCF with shRNA results in acquisition of repressive histone marks in the globin locus and reduces globin gene expression whereas silent flanking olfactory receptor genes are unaffected. These results support a genome-wide role for CTCF/cohesin sites through loop formation that both influences transcription and contributes to cell-type-specific chromatin organization and function.
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ABSTRACT: When placed between an enhancer and promoter, certain DNA sequence elements inhibit enhancer-stimulated gene expression. The best characterized of these enhancer-blocking insulators, gypsy in Drosophila and the CTCF-binding element in vertebrates and flies, stabilize contacts between distant genomic regulatory sites leading to the formation of loop domains. Current results show that CTCF mediates long-range contacts in the mouse beta-globin locus and at the Igf2/H19-imprinted locus. Recently described active chromatin hubs and transcription factories also involve long-range interactions; it is likely that CTCF interferes with their formation when acting as an insulator. The properties of CTCF, and its newly described genomic distribution, suggest that it may play an important role in large-scale nuclear architecture, perhaps mediated by the co-factors with which it interacts in vivo.Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 11/2007; 17(5):400-7. · 7.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Functional compartmentalization of eukaryotic genomes is thought to be necessary for the proper regulation of gene expression. Chromatin insulators or boundary elements have been implicated in the establishment of this compartmentalization, as they may be involved in creating independent chromatin domains. Recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of insulator function suggest a role for boundary elements in determining transcriptional identity of chromatin and in organizing chromatin into structural compartments within the nucleus. Insulators may thus be involved in setting up topological chromatin domains associated with particular transcriptional states.Biology of the Cell 11/2004; 96(8):617-29. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insulators are protein-bound DNA elements that are thought to play a role in chromatin organization and the regulation of gene expression by mediating intra- and interchromosomal interactions. Suppressor of Hair-wing [Su(Hw)] and Drosophila CTCF (dCTCF) insulators are found at distinct loci throughout the Drosophila melanogaster genome and function by recruiting an additional protein, Centrosomal Protein 190 (CP190). We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and microarray analysis (ChIP-chip) experiments with whole-genome tiling arrays to compare Su(Hw), dCTCF, boundary element-associated factor (BEAF), and CP190 localization on DNA in two different cell lines and found evidence that BEAF is a third subclass of CP190-containing insulators. The DNA-binding proteins Su(Hw), dCTCF, and BEAF show unique distribution patterns with respect to the location and expression level of genes, suggesting diverse roles for these three subclasses of insulators in genome organization. Notably, cell line-specific localization sites for all three DNA-binding proteins as well as CP190 indicate multiple levels at which insulators can be regulated to affect gene expression. These findings suggest a model in which insulator subclasses may have distinct functions that together organize the genome in a cell type-specific manner, resulting in differential regulation of gene expression.Genes & development 06/2009; 23(11):1338-50. · 12.08 Impact Factor