Effects of Labetalol on Hemodynamic Parameters and Soluble Biomarkers of Inflammation in Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients With Active Cocaine Use
Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 2.09). 03/2010; 15(1):47-52. DOI: 10.1177/1074248409358409
Cocaine use is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and can promote acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Use of beta-blockers is controversial in patients who use cocaine, and the safety and efficacy of these medications in ACS in patients actively using cocaine is unknown. We enrolled 90 patients with ACS and positive urine drug screen for cocaine. Patients received standard ACS therapy plus either labetalol (n = 60) or diltiazem (n = 30). Blood pressure and heart rate were measured at baseline and 48 hours. Levels of serum CD40 ligand, interleukin (IL)-6, and choline at baseline and 48 hours were determined. There were no baseline differences in hemodynamics or serum levels of inflammatory markers between the labetalol and diltiazem groups. Both groups experienced a significant and equivalent decrease in BP and HR at 48 hours compared with baseline. At 48 hours of treatment, there were significant decreases of 17% in CD40 ligand (P < .005) and 16% in IL-6 (P < .005) but no change in choline in the diltiazem group. Furthermore, in the labetalol group, there were significant differences of 30% in CD40 ligand (P < .005 time and group comparison), 22% in IL-6 (P < .005 time and group comparison), and 18% in choline (P < .005 time and group comparison). There were no adverse events during hospitalization in any patients who received labetalol. In conclusion, labetalol appears to be safe in cocaine-associated ACS. Furthermore, labetalol provides a beneficial hemodynamic response and, in comparison to diltiazem, potentiates an anti-inflammatory vascular response in this setting.
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ABSTRACT: Cocaine-induced myocardial infarction (MI) is well documented. Current literature recommends avoiding beta-blockers in the acute care setting, but after discharge from the hospital, benefits of beta-blocker use may outweigh risks in patients with recent MI resulting from cocaine use. Cardioselective beta-blocker therapy has been demonstrated to be beneficial in post-MI patients with nonsevere asthma. This review article is to compare the risks and benefits of using carvedilol in patients with asthma who have had cocaine-induced MI. The authors searched the English literature from 1984 to July 2010 via PubMed, EMBASE and SCOPUS using the following search terms: "cocaine-induced myocardial infarction AND treatment," "cocaine AND carvedilol," "beta blockers AND asthma," and "carvedilol AND asthma." All studies and case reports related to carvedilol use associated with bronchospasm in patients with asthma and carvedilol use after cocaine-induced MI were included. Carvedilol has theoretical advantages in patients who use cocaine, but there are no controlled studies confirming the superior efficacy of this agent. Reports of carvedilol use in patients with asthma are rare, but findings include increased asthma symptoms and hospitalization in some patients. Fatal asthma has also been reported because of this noncardioselective beta-blocker. Based on a lack of evidence supporting the theoretical advantages but documented risks associated with its use in patients with asthma, carvedilol should be avoided in asthma patients who have a history of cocaine-induced MI. Cardioselective beta-blockers should be used in post-MI patients with nonsevere asthma.The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 02/2011; 342(1):56-61. DOI:10.1097/MAJ.0b013e3182087347 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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