Undiagnosed diabetes in kidney transplant candidates: a case-finding strategy.
ABSTRACT Guidelines recommend that candidates for kidney transplantation (KTx) who do not have diabetes perform a pretransplantation oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) when fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is <110 mg/dl (<6.1 mmol/L); however, the OGTT is potentially costly and cumbersome. We studied the role of the OGTT for diagnosing diabetes and the accuracy of FPG and glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) for predicting a diabetic OGTT before KTx.
In this cross-sectional study, 889 first single-kidney transplant candidates without diabetes, mainly white, performed an OGTT during the transplantation workup. Results were studied using receiver operating characteristic analysis.
Of 72 (8.1%) patients with undiagnosed diabetes, only 16 (22%) had a diabetic FPG (> or =126 mg/dl [> or =7.0 mmol/L]). In patients with a nondiabetic FPG, diabetes (2-hour plasma glucose [2h-PG] > or =200 mg/dl [> or =11.1 mmol/L]) was predicted by FPG but not by HbA(1c). Performing the OGTT in patients with FPG 92 to 125 mg/dl (5.1 to 6.9 mmol/L) identified 65 (90%) patients with diabetes (16 by FPG, 49 by 2h-PG) and required seven OGTTs per patient identified. Subjecting all patients with FPG <110 mg/dl (<6.1 mmol/L) to the OGTT identified 60 (83%) patients with diabetes (16 by FPG, 44 by 2h-PG) but required 14 OGTTs per patient.
The OGTT was paramount in finding most cases of undiagnosed diabetes before KTx. FPG but not HbA(1c) predicted a diabetic OGTT. We suggest that white KTx candidates without diabetes perform a pretransplantation OGTT when FPG is 92 to 125 mg/dl (5.1 to 6.9 mmol/L).
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ABSTRACT: New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) increases infectious and cardiovascular complications and reduces patient and graft survival. We assessed the incidence and the risk factors for glucose metabolism abnormalities before and after kidney transplantation using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The purpose of the study was to better identify patients at risk for NODAT to adapt their immunosuppressive treatment and their management after transplantation. OGTT was performed before transplantation in 243 patients placed on the kidney waiting list between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2008. Of these 243 patients, 120 received a kidney transplant and also had an OGTT after transplantation. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was identified in 22 of 120 patients (18%) before transplantation. After transplantation, diabetes developed in 31 patients and 16 patients had IGT. According to univariate analyses, risk factors for NODAT were age more than 50 years, body mass index more than 25 kg/m, pretransplant IGT, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and acute rejection. According to multivariate analyses, pretransplant IGT (relative risk=2.4), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (relative risk=3), and acute rejection (RR, 2.8) remained significantly associated with NODAT. Patients were stratified by age, primary kidney disease, and pretransplant OGTT. The risk of developing NODAT increased 2.4-, 5-, and 14-fold, depending on the number of risk factors. Pretransplant OGTT, together with age and nephropathy, is a helpful tool for identifying patients at risk for NODAT. For patients with two or three of these risk factors, the adjustment of immunosuppression may be recommended.Transplantation 02/2011; 91(7):757-64. DOI:10.1097/TP.0b013e31820f0877 · 3.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AIMS/OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the long-term effects of post-transplant glycaemia on long-term survival after renal transplantation. Study participants were 1,410 consecutive transplant recipients without known diabetes who underwent an OGTT 10 weeks post-transplant and were observed for a median of 6.7 years (range 0.3-13.8 years). The HRs adjusted for age, sex, traditional risk factors and transplant-related risk factors were estimated. Each 1 mmol/l increase in fasting plasma glucose (fPG) or 2 h plasma glucose (2hPG) was associated with 11% (95% CI -1%, 24%) and 5% (1%, 9%) increments in all-cause mortality risk and 19% (1%, 39%) and 6% (1%, 12%) increments in cardiovascular (CV) mortality risk, respectively. Including both fPG and 2hPG in the multi-adjusted model the HR for 2hPG remained unchanged, while the HR for fPG was attenuated (1.05 [1.00, 1.11] and 0.97 [0.84, 1.14]). Compared with recipients with normal glucose tolerance, patients with post-transplant diabetes mellitus had higher all-cause and CV mortality (1.54 [1.09, 2.17] and 1.80 [1.10, 2.96]), while patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) had higher all-cause, but not CV mortality (1.39 [1.01, 1.91] and 1.04 [0.62, 1.74]). Conversely, impaired fasting glucose was not associated with increased all-cause or CV mortality (0.79 [0.52, 1.23] and 0.76 [0.39, 1.49]). Post-challenge hyperglycaemia predicted death from any cause and infectious disease in the multivariable analyses (1.49 [1.15, 1.95] and 1.91 [1.09, 3.33]). For predicting all-cause and CV mortality, 2hPG is superior to fPG after renal transplantation. Also, early post-transplant diabetes, IGT and post-challenge hyperglycaemia were significant predictors of death. Future studies should determine whether an OGTT helps identify renal transplant recipients at increased risk of premature death.Diabetologia 03/2011; 54(6):1341-9. DOI:10.1007/s00125-011-2105-9 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is considered to be a major cause of cardiovascular disease and death among patients with a functioning allograft. A major challenge is to reduce the incidence of NODAT and to treat it optimally once it has occurred. AREAS COVERED: This review presents current data on how to prevent NODAT in patients at risk, with a focus on modifications in the immunosuppressive regimen. Current suggestions for detection and treatment of NODAT are also presented. EXPERT OPINION: Prevention of NODAT is possible by assessing the patient's glycemic risk prior to transplantation and tailoring the treatment (e.g., choice and dosage of immunosuppressive agents) after transplantation. An oral glucose tolerance test is still the gold standard to detect NODAT in patients at risk (prediabetes) but algorithms can be used to select those who should be tested. The treatment of NODAT involves a broad approach on risk factors for cardiovascular events and graft loss. Future studies on the use of oral hypoglycemic agents in NODAT are still needed.Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 11/2011; 12(17):2641-55. DOI:10.1517/14656566.2011.628936 · 3.09 Impact Factor