Undiagnosed diabetes in kidney transplant candidates: a case-finding strategy.
ABSTRACT Guidelines recommend that candidates for kidney transplantation (KTx) who do not have diabetes perform a pretransplantation oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) when fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is <110 mg/dl (<6.1 mmol/L); however, the OGTT is potentially costly and cumbersome. We studied the role of the OGTT for diagnosing diabetes and the accuracy of FPG and glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) for predicting a diabetic OGTT before KTx.
In this cross-sectional study, 889 first single-kidney transplant candidates without diabetes, mainly white, performed an OGTT during the transplantation workup. Results were studied using receiver operating characteristic analysis.
Of 72 (8.1%) patients with undiagnosed diabetes, only 16 (22%) had a diabetic FPG (> or =126 mg/dl [> or =7.0 mmol/L]). In patients with a nondiabetic FPG, diabetes (2-hour plasma glucose [2h-PG] > or =200 mg/dl [> or =11.1 mmol/L]) was predicted by FPG but not by HbA(1c). Performing the OGTT in patients with FPG 92 to 125 mg/dl (5.1 to 6.9 mmol/L) identified 65 (90%) patients with diabetes (16 by FPG, 49 by 2h-PG) and required seven OGTTs per patient identified. Subjecting all patients with FPG <110 mg/dl (<6.1 mmol/L) to the OGTT identified 60 (83%) patients with diabetes (16 by FPG, 44 by 2h-PG) but required 14 OGTTs per patient.
The OGTT was paramount in finding most cases of undiagnosed diabetes before KTx. FPG but not HbA(1c) predicted a diabetic OGTT. We suggest that white KTx candidates without diabetes perform a pretransplantation OGTT when FPG is 92 to 125 mg/dl (5.1 to 6.9 mmol/L).
- Transplantation 08/2014; 98(3):e19-e20. · 3.78 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The development of new-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation (NODAT) is associated with reduced graft function, increased cardiovascular morbidity and lower patient survival among adult recipients. In the pediatric population, however, the few studies examining NODAT have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, the true incidence of NODAT in the pediatric population has been difficult to establish. The identification of children and adolescents at risk for NODAT requires appropriate screening questions and tests pre- and post-kidney transplant. Several risk factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NODAT and post-transplant glucose intolerance, including African American race, obesity, family history of diabetes and the type of immunosuppressant regimen. Moreover, uremia per se results in a state of insulin resistance that increases the risk of developing diabetes post-transplant. When an individual becomes glucose intolerant, early lifestyle modification and antihyperglycemic measures with tailoring of the immunosuppressant regimen should be implemented to prevent the development of NODAT. For the child or adolescent with NODAT, antihyperglycemic therapy should be prescribed in order to achieve optimal glycemic control, ultimately reducing complications and improving overall allograft and patient survival. In this article, we review the risk factors, screening methods, diagnosis, management and outcome of children and adolescents with NODAT and post-kidney transplant glucose intolerance.Pediatric Nephrology 06/2014; · 2.88 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: After successful solid organ transplantation, new-onset diabetes (NODAT) is reported to develop in about 15-40% of the patients. The variation in incidence may partly depend on differences in the populations that have been studied and partly depend on the different definitions of NODAT that have been used. The diagnosis was often based on 'the use of insulin postoperatively', 'oral agents used', random glucose monitoring and a fasting glucose value between 7 and 13 mmol/l (126-234 mg/dl). Only few have used a 2-h glucose tolerance test performed before transplantation. There is a huge variation in the literature regarding risk factors for developing NODAT. They can be divided into factors related to glucose metabolism or to patient demographics and the latter into modifiable and nonmodifiable. Screening for risk factors should start early and be re-evaluated while being on the waitlist. Patients on the waiting list for renal transplantation and transplanted patients share many characteristics in having hyperglycaemia, disturbed insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance. We present guidelines for early risk factor assessment and a screening/treatment strategy for disturbed glucose metabolism, both before and after transplantation. The aim was to avoid the increased cardiovascular disease and mortality rates associated with NODAT.Transplant International 04/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor