Undiagnosed diabetes in kidney transplant candidates: a case-finding strategy.
ABSTRACT Guidelines recommend that candidates for kidney transplantation (KTx) who do not have diabetes perform a pretransplantation oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) when fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is <110 mg/dl (<6.1 mmol/L); however, the OGTT is potentially costly and cumbersome. We studied the role of the OGTT for diagnosing diabetes and the accuracy of FPG and glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) for predicting a diabetic OGTT before KTx.
In this cross-sectional study, 889 first single-kidney transplant candidates without diabetes, mainly white, performed an OGTT during the transplantation workup. Results were studied using receiver operating characteristic analysis.
Of 72 (8.1%) patients with undiagnosed diabetes, only 16 (22%) had a diabetic FPG (> or =126 mg/dl [> or =7.0 mmol/L]). In patients with a nondiabetic FPG, diabetes (2-hour plasma glucose [2h-PG] > or =200 mg/dl [> or =11.1 mmol/L]) was predicted by FPG but not by HbA(1c). Performing the OGTT in patients with FPG 92 to 125 mg/dl (5.1 to 6.9 mmol/L) identified 65 (90%) patients with diabetes (16 by FPG, 49 by 2h-PG) and required seven OGTTs per patient identified. Subjecting all patients with FPG <110 mg/dl (<6.1 mmol/L) to the OGTT identified 60 (83%) patients with diabetes (16 by FPG, 44 by 2h-PG) but required 14 OGTTs per patient.
The OGTT was paramount in finding most cases of undiagnosed diabetes before KTx. FPG but not HbA(1c) predicted a diabetic OGTT. We suggest that white KTx candidates without diabetes perform a pretransplantation OGTT when FPG is 92 to 125 mg/dl (5.1 to 6.9 mmol/L).
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a common complication in renal transplant (RT) patients. The clinical significance of pre-transplant HbA1c level remains unclear in RT patients. Thus, we investigated the predictive role of pre-transplant HbA1c levels for the NODAT diagnosed in 1 year after renal transplantation. METHODS: Two hundred and four RT patients older than 18 years were analyzed. NODAT diagnosis during the 1-year follow-up after RT was based on the 2003 modified criteria of the ADA. HbA1c level was measured at pre-transplantation period and every 3 months after RT. RESULTS: Mean age was 39.3 ± 10.7 (20-73) years and 36 % were female. Mean pre-transplant HbA1c level was 4.9 ± 0.5 % (4.0-6.4 %). Pre-transplant HbA1c level was positively correlated with age, pre-transplant body mass index (BMI) and cholesterol level. Fifty-four patients (25.9 %) developed NODAT and 33.8 % had impaired fasting blood glucose levels. Patients with NODAT were significantly older and had higher pre-transplant BMI and HbA1c than those without. Use of Tacrolimus was also higher in patients with NODAT. In stepwise logistic regression analysis, pre-transplant HbA1c level was an independent predictor for the development on NODAT (OR = 4.63, 95 % CI: 2.09-10.2, p < 0.001) together with age, Tacrolimus-based regimen and pre-transplant fasting blood glucose level. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of pre-transplant HbA1c levels may be a valuable tool for early diagnosis of NODAT in RT recipients.International Urology and Nephrology 10/2012; · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diagnosing new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) has not been validated against the gold-standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We analysed the predictive and optimum value of HbA1c to diagnose NODAT amongst nondiabetic renal transplant recipients. Assessment of glucose metabolism (OGTT and HbA1c) was prospectively undertaken at 3 and 12 months post-transplantation in 71 nondiabetic renal transplant recipients. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and area under curve (c-statistic). Incidence of NODAT at 3 and 12 months post-transplantation was 14.3% and 9.5% respectively. At 3 months, optimum HbA1c cut-off value for predicting NODAT based on fasting glucose was 7.35 [AUC 1.00 (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 100.0%, P = 0.004)] and for postprandial glucose-defined NODAT was 6.20 [AUC 0.98 (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 88.9%, P < 0.001)]. At 12 months, optimum HbA1c cut-off value for both fasting- and postprandial glucose-defined NODAT was 6.45 [AUC 0.92 (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 87.5%, P = 0.048) and AUC 0.84 (sensitivity 75.0%, specificity 89.5%, P = 0.026) respectively]. Concordance between diagnosis of NODAT (OGTT+, HbA1c+) and nondiagnosis of NODAT (OGTT-, HbA1c-) was 88.9% and 98.7% respectively. To conclude, HbA1c (≥6.5%) can be utilized to diagnose NODAT beyond 3 months post-transplantation but the OGTT remains the gold-standard tool.Transplant International 01/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The development of new-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation (NODAT) is associated with reduced graft function, increased cardiovascular morbidity and lower patient survival among adult recipients. In the pediatric population, however, the few studies examining NODAT have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, the true incidence of NODAT in the pediatric population has been difficult to establish. The identification of children and adolescents at risk for NODAT requires appropriate screening questions and tests pre- and post-kidney transplant. Several risk factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NODAT and post-transplant glucose intolerance, including African American race, obesity, family history of diabetes and the type of immunosuppressant regimen. Moreover, uremia per se results in a state of insulin resistance that increases the risk of developing diabetes post-transplant. When an individual becomes glucose intolerant, early lifestyle modification and antihyperglycemic measures with tailoring of the immunosuppressant regimen should be implemented to prevent the development of NODAT. For the child or adolescent with NODAT, antihyperglycemic therapy should be prescribed in order to achieve optimal glycemic control, ultimately reducing complications and improving overall allograft and patient survival. In this article, we review the risk factors, screening methods, diagnosis, management and outcome of children and adolescents with NODAT and post-kidney transplant glucose intolerance.Pediatric Nephrology 06/2014; · 2.94 Impact Factor