A consensus-based guideline defining the clinical target volume for pelvic lymph nodes in external beam radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer.
ABSTRACT To develop a consensus-based guideline as well as an atlas defining pelvic nodal clinical target volumes in external beam radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer.
A working subgroup to establish the consensus-based guideline on clinical target volumes for uterine cervical cancer was formulated by the Radiation Therapy Study Group of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group in July 2008. The working subgroup consisted of seven radiation oncologists. The process resulting in the consensus included a comparison of contouring on CT images among the members, reviewing of published textbooks and the relevant literature and a distribution analysis of metastatic nodes on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging of actual patients.
The working subgroup defined the pelvic nodal clinical target volumes for cervical cancer and developed an associated atlas. As a basic criterion, the lymph node clinical target volume was defined as the area encompassed by a 7 mm margin around the applicable pelvic vessels. Modifications were made in each nodal area to cover adjacent adipose tissues at risk of microscopic nodal metastases. Although the bones and muscles were excluded, the bowel was not routinely excluded in the definition. Each of the following pelvic node regions was defined: common iliac, external iliac, internal iliac, obturator and presacral. Anatomical structures bordering each lymph node region were defined for six directions; anterior, posterior, lateral, medial, cranial and caudal. Drafts of the definition and the atlas were reviewed by members of the JCOG Gynecologic Cancer Study Group (GCSG).
We developed a consensus-based guideline defining the pelvic node clinical target volumes that included an atlas. The guideline will be continuously updated to reflect the ongoing changes in the field.
SourceAvailable from: I. M. Jürgenliemk-Schulz[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine the dose contributions from image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) to individual suspicious pelvic lymph nodes (pLNN) in cervical cancer patients. Data were collected in two cancer centers, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) and University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU). 27 and 15 patients with node positive cervical cancer treated with HDR (high dose rate) or PDR (pulsed dose rate)-IGABT were analyzed. HDR-IGABT (UPCI) was delivered with CT/MRI compatible tandem-ring applicators with 5.0-6.0 Gy × five fractions. PDR-IGABT (UMCU) dose was delivered with Utrecht tandem-ovoid applicators with 32 × 0.6 Gy × two fractions. Pelvic lymph nodes with short axis diameter of ≥ 5 mm on pre-treatment MRI or PET-CT were contoured for all BT-plans. Dose contributions to individual pLNN expressed as D90 (dose to 90% of the volume) were calculated from dose-volume histograms as absolute and relative physical dose (% of the reference dose) for each fraction. For each node, the total dose from all fractions was calculated, expressed in EQD2 (equivalent total dose in 2 Gy fractions). Fifty-seven (UPCI) and 40 (UMCU) individual pLNN were contoured. The mean D90 pLNN was 10.8% (range 5.7-25.1%) and 20.5% (range 6.8-93.3%), respectively, and therefore different in the two centers. These values translate into 2.7 Gy (1.3-6.6 Gy) EQD2 and 7.1 Gy (2.2-36.7 Gy) EQD2, respectively. Differences are caused by the location of the individual nodes in relation to the spatial dose distribution of IGABT, differences in total dose administered and radiobiology (HDR versus PDR). The IGABT dose contribution to individual pelvic nodes depends on patient and treatment related factors, and varies considerably.Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy 03/2014; 6(1):21-27. DOI:10.5114/jcb.2014.42021
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detection of metastasis in pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes from different gynecological malignancies. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cross sectional analytic study was conducted at the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi Pakistan from January 2011 to December 2012. A sample of 48 women, age range between 20-79 years, fulfilling inclusion criteria were included. All patients had histopathologically proven gynecological malignancies in the cervix, endometrium or ovary and presented for a pretreatment MRI to our radiology department. Results: MRI was 100% sensitive and had a 100% positive predictive value to detect lymph node metastasis in lymph nodes with spiculated margins and 100% sensitive with a 75% positive predictive value to detect lymph node metastasis in a lymph node with lobulated margins. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of MRI to detect heterogeneous nodal enhancement were 100% and 75% respectively. Conclusions: Our study results reinforce that MRI should be used as a modality of choice in the pretreatment assessment of lymph nodes in proven gynaecological malignancies in order to determine the line of patientmanagement, distinguishing surgical from non-surgical cases.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 06/2014; 15(11):4705-9. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.11.4705 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the patterns of recurrence in cervical cancer patients treated with pelvic nodal clinical target volume at L4-L5 junction instead of aortic bifurcation. Methods: Records of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with chemo-radiation were reviewed. Patients treated with standard pelvic fields (superior border of the field at L4/L5 junction), without any radiological evidence of regional lymphadenopathy (< 10 mm) were included in the study. The level of aortic bifurcation was retrospectively documented on computed tomography. Patterns of recurrences were correlated to the aortic bifurcation and the superior border of the radiation fields (L4/L5). Results: Aortic bifurcation was above the radiation fields (above L4/5) in 82 of 116 (70.7%) patients. Of the nine patients that recurred above the radiation field, 5 (55%) were above L4/5 failures, i. e. between aortic bifurcation and L4/5, and 4 (45%) had para-aortic failures. On retrospective analysis, 16 patients were found to have subcentimeter lymph nodes and higher nodal failures (7/16) were observed in patients with subcentimeter regional lymph nodes at diagnosis. Conclusions: Superior border of nodal clinical target volume should ideally include the aortic bifurcation instead of L4-L5 inter space in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Radiotherapy fields need to be defined cautiously in patients with subcentimeter pelvic lymph nodes.Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2014; 44(10). DOI:10.1093/jjco/hyu107 · 1.75 Impact Factor