• The Journal of infection 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jinf.2013.07.023 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leukocyte counts and differentials are commonly acquired in patients with suspected respiratory viral infections and may contribute diagnostic information. However, most published work is limited to a single timepoint at initial presentation to a medical provider, which may correspond to widely varying points in the course of disease. To examine the temporal development and time-dependent utility of routine leukocyte differentials in the diagnosis of respiratory viral infections. We analyzed data from recent experimental human challenges with influenza A/H3N2, human rhinovirus (HRV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Routine clinical lab cell counts and differentials were measured daily from the time period immediately prior to inoculation through the eventual resolution of symptomatic disease. Approximately 50% of challenged individuals developed symptoms and viral shedding consistent with clinical disease. Subpopulations of WBC showed marked differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals over time, but these changes were much more profound and consistent in influenza infection. Influenza-infected subjects develop both relative lymphopenia and relative monocytosis, both of which closely mirror symptom development in time. A lymphocyte:monocyte ratio of <2 correctly classifies 100% of influenza (but not RSV or HRV) infected subjects at the time of maximal symptoms. Leukocyte differentials may suggest a viral etiology in patients with upper respiratory infection, but are not sufficient to allow differentiation between common viruses. Timing of data acquisition relative to the disease course is a key component in determining the utility of these tests.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 09/2013; 58(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2013.09.015 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ferrets are a useful animal model for human influenza virus infections, since they closely mimic the pathogenesis of influenza viruses observed in humans. However, a lack of reagents, especially for flow cytometry of immune cell subsets, has limited research in this model. Here we use a panel of primarily species cross-reactive antibodies to identify ferret T cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), B cells, and granulocytes in peripheral blood. Following infection with seasonal H3N2 or H1N1pdm09 influenza viruses, these cell types showed rapid and dramatic changes in frequency, even though clinically the infections were mild. The loss of B cells and CD4 and CD8 T cells, and the increase in neutrophils, were especially marked 1-2 days after infection, when about 90% of CD8+ T cells disappeared from the peripheral blood. The different virus strains led to different kinetics of leukocyte subset alterations. Vaccination with homologous vaccine reduced clinical symptoms slightly, but led to a much more rapid return to normal leukocyte parameters. Assessment of clinical symptoms may underestimate the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in restoring homeostasis.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100926. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100926 · 3.53 Impact Factor


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Jun 25, 2014