Postischemic poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition reduces ischemia reperfusion injury in a hind-limb ischemia model.
ABSTRACT Several experiments were designed to determine whether the systemic, postischemic administration of PJ34,which is a poly-adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose polymerase inhibitor, decreased tissue injury and inflammation after hind-limb ischemia reperfusion (I/R).
C57BL6 mouse limbs were subjected to 1.5 h ischemia followed by 24-h reperfusion. The treatment group (PJ) received intraperitoneal PJ34 (30 mg/kg) immediately before reperfusion, as well as 15 min and 2 h into reperfusion. The control group (CG) received lactated Ringer's alone at the same time intervals as PJ34 administration. The skeletal muscle levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), keratinocyte derived chemokine (KC), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured. Quantitative measurement of skeletal muscle tissue injury was assessed by microscopic analysis of fiber injury.
ATP levels were higher in limbs of PJ versus CG mice (absolute ATP: 4.7 +/- 0.35 vs 2.3 +/- 0.15-ng/mg tissue, P = .002). The levels of MIP-2, KC, and MPO were lower in PJ versus CG mice (MIP-2: 1.4 +/- 0.34 vs 3.67 +/- 0.67-pg/mg protein, P = .014; KC: 4.97 +/- 0.97 vs 12.65 +/- 3.05-pg/mg protein, P = .037; MPO: 46.27 +/- 10.53 vs 107.34 +/- 13.58-ng/mg protein, P = .008). Muscle fiber injury was markedly reduced in PJ versus CG mice (4.25 +/- 1.9% vs 22.68 +/- 3.0% total fibers, P = .0004).
Systemic postischemic administration of PJ34 preserved skeletal muscle energy levels, decreased inflammatory markers, and preserved tissue viability post-I/R. These results support PARP inhibition as a viable treatment for skeletal muscle I/R in a clinically relevant post hoc scenario.
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ABSTRACT: Evidence is presented for the involvement of the interplay between transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in the regulation of mouse PARP-1 gene (muPARP-1) promoter activity. We identified potential YY1 binding motifs (BM) at seven positions in the muPARP-1 core-promoter (-574/+200). Binding of YY1 was observed by the electrophoretic supershift assay using anti-YY1 antibody and linearized or supercoiled forms of plasmids bearing the core promoter, as well as with 30 bp oligonucleotide probes containing the individual YY1 binding motifs and four muPARP-1 promoter fragments. We detected YY1 binding to BM1 (-587/-558), BM4 (-348/-319) and a very prominent association with BM7 (+86/+115). Inspection of BM7 reveals overlap of the muPARP-1 translation start site with the Kozak sequence and YY1 and PARP-1 recognition sites. Site-directed mutagenesis of the YY1 and PARP-1 core motifs eliminated protein binding and showed that YY1 mediates PARP-1 binding next to the Kozak sequence. Transfection experiments with a reporter gene under the control of the muPARP-1 promoter revealed that YY1 binding to BM1 and BM4 independently repressed the promoter. Mutations at these sites prevented YY1 binding, allowing for increased reporter gene activity. In PARP-1 knockout cells subjected to PARP-1 overexpression, effects similar to YY1 became apparent; over expression of YY1 and PARP-1 revealed their synergistic action. Together with our previous findings these results expand the PARP-1 autoregulatory loop principle by YY1 actions, implying rigid limitation of muPARP-1 expression. The joint actions of PARP-1 and YY1 emerge as important contributions to cell homeostasis.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e44125. · 4.09 Impact Factor