Valproic acid enhances in vitro development and Oct-3/4 expression of miniature pig somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.
ABSTRACT The present study was carried out to examine the effects of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on in vitro development of miniature pig somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos and on expression of a mouse Oct-3/4 promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene (EGFP expression only detected in Oct-3/4-expressing cells) introduced into donor cells for SCNT during their development. The addition of 4 mM VPA to embryo culture medium for 48 h after activation significantly (p < 0.01) increased the blastocyst formation rate of SCNT embryos compared with the control, whereas VPA did not affect their cleavage rate. The rate of SCNT embryos expressing EGFP at 5 days of culture was not affected by the presence or absence of VPA treatment. At 7 days of culture, however, the addition of 4 mM VPA to embryo culture medium for 48 h after activation significantly (p < 0.05) increased the rate of SCNT embryos expressing EGFP compared with the control. The results indicate that VPA enhances the ability of miniature pig SCNT embryos to develop into blastocysts and maintains the ability of them to express Oct-3/4 gene.
- SourceAvailable from: Christopher Grupen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The in vitro production of porcine embryos has presented numerous challenges to researchers over the past four decades. Some of the problems encountered were specific to porcine gametes and embryos and needed the concerted efforts of many to overcome. Gradually, porcine embryo in vitro production systems became more reliable and acceptable rates of blastocyst formation were achieved. Despite the significant improvements, the problem of polyspermic fertilization has still not been adequately resolved and the embryo in vitro culture conditions are still considered to be suboptimal. Whereas early studies focused on increasing our understanding of the reproductive processes involved, the technology evolved to the point where in vitro-matured oocytes and in vitro-produced embryos could be used as research material for developing associated reproductive technologies, such as SCNT and embryo cryopreservation. Today, the in vitro procedures used to mature oocytes and culture embryos are integral to the production of transgenic pigs by SCNT. This review discusses the major achievements, advances, and knowledge gained from porcine embryo in vitro production studies and highlights the future research perspectives of this important technology.Theriogenology 01/2014; 81(1):24–37. · 2.08 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract In this study, we tested the effects of valproic acid (VPA), a known histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), on the growth characteristics, apoptosis, and cell cycle stages distribution of donor cells, as well as cloning efficiency, embryo development, and histone methylation. Our results showed that treatment of donor cells with VPA (2.5 mM, 5.0 mM, 7.5 mM, or 10 mM) for 24 h resulted in altered cell proliferation, extent of apoptosis and necrosis, and cell cycle stage distribution, whereas no changes in cell viability and chromosomal complements were observed. Measurement of relative gene expression using real-time PCR of a few developmentally important genes in treated donor cells showed decreased expression of HDAC1 and increased expression of BAX (p<0.05). No change in relative expression of HDAC2 and Bcl2 was noticed. Treatment of donor cells with VPA for 24 h before electrofusion significantly (p<0.05) increased the blastocyst formation rate of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos compared to the control embryos. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive nuclei in SCNT blastocysts derived from VPA-treated donor cells were significantly decreased compared to the control blastocysts (p<0.05). Immunolocalization studies revealed that the levels of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me3) were lower in VPA-treated donor cells derived cloned blastocysts than nontreated cloned embryos, and was at the level of in vitro fertilization (IVF) counterparts, although no effects of treatments were found in donor cells. Our study demonstrates that the use of VPA in SCNT has been beneficial for efficient reprogramming of donor cells. Its effect on histone methylation in cloned embryos correlates with their developmental potential and may be a useful epigenetic marker to predict the efficiency of SCNT.Cellular reprogramming. 11/2013;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesus monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P>0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P<0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2 mM valproic acid for 24 h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2014; · 2.41 Impact Factor