Valproic acid enhances in vitro development and Oct-3/4 expression of miniature pig somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.
ABSTRACT The present study was carried out to examine the effects of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on in vitro development of miniature pig somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos and on expression of a mouse Oct-3/4 promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene (EGFP expression only detected in Oct-3/4-expressing cells) introduced into donor cells for SCNT during their development. The addition of 4 mM VPA to embryo culture medium for 48 h after activation significantly (p < 0.01) increased the blastocyst formation rate of SCNT embryos compared with the control, whereas VPA did not affect their cleavage rate. The rate of SCNT embryos expressing EGFP at 5 days of culture was not affected by the presence or absence of VPA treatment. At 7 days of culture, however, the addition of 4 mM VPA to embryo culture medium for 48 h after activation significantly (p < 0.05) increased the rate of SCNT embryos expressing EGFP compared with the control. The results indicate that VPA enhances the ability of miniature pig SCNT embryos to develop into blastocysts and maintains the ability of them to express Oct-3/4 gene.
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ABSTRACT: In tumors and embryoid bodies of mouse teratoma a correlation has been established between specific activity of alkaline phosphatase (EC 220.127.116.11) and content of embryonal carcinoma, the stem cell of the tumor. A histochemical study of embryoid bodies has shown that high levels of the enzyme are confined to embryonal carcinoma. Fifteen tissue culture lines could be classified into three groups: (a) lines identifiable as pluripotential embryonal carcinoma by their morphology, tumorigenicity, and capacity to differentiate in vivo; (b) nullipotential embryonal carcinoma, resembling pluripotential embryonal carcinoma in morphology and malignancy but giving rise to undifferentiated tumors; and (c) lines of apparently nonmalignant somatic cells. Both types of embryonal carcinoma possess levels of alkaline phosphatase 5- to a 100-fold higher than the somatic cell lines. The embryonal carcinoma enzyme resembles the enzymes from kidney and placenta in kinetics of thermal inactivation and sensitivity to the inhibitor L-phenylalanine, but is distinguishable from the alkaline phosphatases of liver and intestine. These findings are discussed in relation to the use of teratoma for the study of cell differentiation.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1974; 70(12):3899-903. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oct-4 is the earliest expressed gene known to encode a transcription factor which is developmentally regulated during mammalian embryogenesis. In order to understand the role of Oct-4 in early murine embryogenesis, we carried out an analysis of the temporal and spatial pattern of protein expression. We report the presence of Oct-4 protein in cultured cells and murine embryos as determined by immunohistochemistry using confocal microscopy. Oct-4 protein is present in both embryonic stem cells and embryonal carcinoma cells, but is down-regulated following differentiation of these cells by culture in the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor or in the presence of retinoic acid, respectively. In embryos, the protein is found at low levels in unfertilized eggs and is localized predominantly to the pro-nuclei upon their formation following fertilization. The protein is present in the nuclei in all cleavage stages, but following differentiation of the trophectoderm at the blastocyst stage, Oct-4 protein is only expressed in the inner cell mass. The pattern of protein expression to this stage correlates well with previously reported in situ hybridization results; however, a striking difference was seen in primitive endoderm cells which had begun to differentiate and migrate along the inner surface of the trophectoderm. In direct contrast to RNA localization studies which demonstrate that there are only low levels of Oct-4 transcripts in primitive endoderm cells, protein expression in these early migrating cells is higher than in the inner cell mass.Developmental Biology 12/1994; 166(1):259-67. · 3.87 Impact Factor
- Genes & Development 08/1995; 9(14):1679-93. · 12.44 Impact Factor