Evaluation of lung tolerance of ethanol, propylene glycol, and sorbitan monooleate as solvents in medical aerosols.
ABSTRACT Aerosol therapy is an expanding technique allowing administration of drugs acting locally in the bronchial tree and lungs or acting systemically after absorption through the respiratory tract. However, the choice of solvents and adjuvants is a critical step in the formulation process of new drugs. Pulmonary tolerance of ethanol, propylene glycol and sorbitan ester was evaluated in a rat model of intratracheal administration using a Microsprayer in a 4-day toxicity study.
Four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (11 rats per group, n = 44) have received, on 4 consecutive days 150 microL of solutions containing the solvents, by intratracheal route using a IA-1B-2 inches-Microsprayer (PennCentury, Philadelphia, PA). Once a day, the rats received deionized water (control) or ethanol 10% or propylene glycol 30% or sorbitan monooleate 10%. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the fourth administration. Biochemical analysis on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was performed on seven rats per group. The respiratory tract of the remaining four rats/group was examined histologically.
Biochemistry and histopathology findings demonstrated that under the conditions tested, deionized water, 10% ethanol, and 30% propylene glycol were tolerated in a qualitatively similar way presenting limited cellular reaction. In contrast, 10% sorbitan monooleate produced an accumulation of foamy macrophages in the lungs and a higher degree of inflammation. In addition, animals in this group showed higher polymorphonuclear neutrophil recruitment and total proteins levels in BAL fluid.
The overall results recommended ranking the vehicles according to the degree of inflammation which was induced: deionized water <10% ethanol < or =30% propylene glycol <10% Tween 80.
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ABSTRACT: Electronic cigarette consumption ('vaping') is marketed as an alternative to conventional tobacco smoking. Technically, a mixture of chemicals containing carrier liquids, flavors, and optionally nicotine is vaporized and inhaled. The present study aims at the determination of the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and (ultra)fine particles (FP/UFP) from an e-cigarette under near-to-real-use conditions in an 8-m(3) emission test chamber. Furthermore, the inhaled mixture is analyzed in small chambers. An increase in FP/UFP and VOC could be determined after the use of the e-cigarette. Prominent components in the gas-phase are 1,2-propanediol, 1,2,3-propanetriol, diacetin, flavorings, and traces of nicotine. As a consequence, 'passive vaping' must be expected from the consumption of e-cigarettes. Furthermore, the inhaled aerosol undergoes changes in the human lung that is assumed to be attributed to deposition and evaporation. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The consumption of e-cigarettes marks a new source for chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. To evaluate the impact of e-cigarettes on indoor air quality and to estimate the possible effect of passive vaping, information about the chemical characteristics of the released vapor is needed.Indoor Air 06/2012; 23(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2012.00792.x · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The project for a European standard testing procedure to characterize nebulizers in terms of particle size distribution has been based on using the Andersen-Marple personal cascade impactor model 298 (A-MPCI) with a sodium fluoride reference solution. In the present study methods based on laser diffraction (Mastersizer-X) and time-of-flight (TOF)(APS) and another cascade impactor (GS1-CI) were compared with the A-MPCI. Two types of nebulizer (Pari LC+ and Microneb) were tested with all apparatuses, and a third type of nebulizer (NL9) was tested with the A-MPCI and Mastersizer-X. Nebulizers were charged with a solution of sodium fluoride in conditions reproducing the European Committee for Normalization (CEN) protocol. There was no difference between the Mastersizer-X and the A-MPCI or between the GS1-CI and the A-MPCI in terms of mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD). Comparison between the APS and the A-MPCI showed a significant difference with the Microneb. The geometric standard deviations (GSD) obtained with the A-MPCI were on average 10% greater than GSD obtained with the other apparatuses, but the differences were not statistically significant. We conclude that laser diffraction can be used for particle size distribution in the context of the European standard, and that the Mastersizer-X is particularly interesting for industrial practice in view of its simplicity and robustness.Journal of Aerosol Medicine 02/2001; 14(1):107-14. DOI:10.1089/08942680152007954 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With the rapid development of transportation industry and China's economy, the construction and development of low-carbon transportation system is the only way to realize the low-carbon and sustainable development of the transportation industry, and also is an important support to the energy -saving and emission reduction target and the healthy economic development. Based on the existing problems in the transportation system, the article analy zes the necessity of developing low-carbon transportation system, and puts up the three-party interaction model (government-transportation-public) and basic governance model.Energy Procedia 12/2011; 5:1502-1507. DOI:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.03.257