Abnormal glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome in non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients early after transplantation.
ABSTRACT Abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) and metabolic syndrome (MS) are individually associated with a poor cardiovascular outcome in kidney transplant recipients. We prospectively studied the relationship between AGM and MS in non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients early after transplantation.
A total of 203 de novo kidney transplant recipients underwent standard 2-hr glucose tolerance test 10 weeks after transplantation. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected. AGM was defined as impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and new onset diabetes after transplant according to the WHO criteria, and MS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Expert Panel criteria.
Overall, 97 patients (47.8%) met the diagnosis of AGM and 98 patients (48.3%) met the criteria of MS. AGM and MS are highly associated (chi, P<0.001). Fasting plasma glucose levels before the transplant are independent predictors common for AGM and MS. Age predicts AGM with and without MS, whereas body mass index before transplant predicts MS. Patients with impaired glucose tolerance and new-onset diabetes after transplant displayed significant worsening of their fasting plasma glucose levels during the 10-week observational period. MS and the components of MS, but not AGM, were associated with reduced transplant renal function (P=0.002).
The early screening of AGM and MS should be emphasized, and the role of early therapeutic interventions aimed at both conditions explored. The long-term follow-up of these patients will yield more insight on the significance of such findings.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE We determined prevalence, risk factors, phenotype, and pathophysiological mechanism of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) to generate strategies for optimal pharmacological management of hyperglycemia in NODAT patients.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Retrospective cohort study comparing demographics, laboratory data, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-derived metabolic parameters from kidney transplant recipients versus subjects not receiving transplants.RESULTSAmong 1,064 stable kidney transplant recipients (≥6 months posttransplantation), 113 (11%) had a history of NODAT and 132 (12%) had pretransplant diabetes. In the remaining patients, randomly assigned OGTTs showed a high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism (11% diabetes; 32% impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or both), predominantly in older patients who received tacrolimus as the primary immunosuppressant. Compared with 1,357 nontransplant subjects, stable kidney transplant recipients had lower basal glucose, higher glycated hemoglobin, lower insulin secretion, and greater insulin sensitivity in each of the three subgroups, defined by OGTT 2-h glucose (<140, 140-199, ≥200 mg/dL). These findings were reinforced in linear spline interpolation models of insulin secretion and sensitivity (all P < 0.001) and in another regression model in which the estimated oral glucose insulin sensitivity index was substantially higher (by 79-112 mL/min m(2)) for transplant versus nontransplant subjects despite adjustments for age, sex, and BMI (all P < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS Glucose metabolism differs substantially between kidney transplant recipients and nontransplant controls. Because impaired insulin secretion appears to be the predominant pathophysiological feature after renal transplantation, early therapeutic interventions that preserve, maintain, or improve β-cell function are potentially beneficial in this population.Diabetes care 05/2013; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) occurs commonly. Prior NODAT definitions have been inconsistent. Based on the American Diabetic Association criteria, we propose a new approach to defining NODAT. METHODS: Analysis of 1416 at-risk transplant recipients was performed. Data from three de novo Astellas registration transplant studies (two kidney and one liver) evaluated NODAT in 634 at-risk patients receiving tacrolimus, 630 at-risk patients receiving tacrolimus extended release, and 152 at-risk patients receiving cyclosporine. NODAT was defined as a composite endpoint consisting of first occurrence of one of four parameters: (i) two fasting plasma glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL (≥7.0 mmol/L) ≥30 days apart, (ii) oral hypoglycemic agent use for ≥30 consecutive days, (iii) insulin therapy for ≥30 consecutive days, and (iv) hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%. We evaluated each of the above parameters, as well as the composite endpoint, in an attempt to establish an appropriate clinical approach to the diagnosis of NODAT. RESULTS: The composite definition results in a 1-year NODAT incidence of 30% to 37% in kidney and 44% to 45% in liver transplant recipients treated with tacrolimus. NODAT incidence was significantly higher with tacrolimus than cyclosporine; there was no difference between the two tacrolimus formulations. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these analyses, the proposed composite definition for NODAT, incorporating broader criteria, is recommended for clinical trials. Appropriate definitions of NODAT allow for a better understanding of the incidence of this complication and may result in earlier initiation of therapy with improved long-term outcomes.Transplantation 04/2013; · 3.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality following kidney transplantation, but the association between pre-diabetes (i.e. impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance) and CVD mortality remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the association between abnormal glucose regulation and arterial stiffness at 3 and 15 months post-transplantation. This is a single-centre prospective cohort study of 83 non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients who received a kidney transplant between 2008 and 2011. All patients underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT - categorised as normal, pre-diabetes or PTDM) and non-invasive measurements of arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity [PWV] and augmentation index [AIx]) 3 months post-transplantation. A sub-set of patients had repeat OGTT (n = 33) and arterial stiffness measurements (n = 28) at 15 months post-transplant. Of the 83 patients, 52% (n = 43) had normal glucose regulation, 31% (n = 26) had pre-diabetes and 17% (n = 14) developed PTDM. Compared with recipients with normal glucose regulation, recipients with PTDM (adjusted beta = 5.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09 to 11.13, p = 0.047) but not those with pre-diabetes (adjusted beta = 3.23, 95%CI -1.05 to 7.51, p = 0.137) had significantly higher AIx 3 months after transplantation. No association was found between glucose regulation and PWV at 3 months after transplantation. There was no association between glucose regulation at 3 or 15 months and AIx and PWV at 15 months in a subset of recipients. Early onset PTDM is associated with increased systemic vascular stiffness (AIx) but not regional stiffness of large arteries (PWV) suggesting that small vessel dysfunction may be the earliest vascular change seen with PTDM. Thus, measurements of arterial stiffness after transplantation may assist in more accurately stratifying future CVD risk of kidney transplant recipients.Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 04/2014; 6(1):52. · 1.92 Impact Factor