ERK1/2 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylates Sodium Channel Na(v)1.7 and Alters Its Gating Properties
ABSTRACT Na(v)1.7 sodium channels can amplify weak stimuli in neurons and act as threshold channels for firing action potentials. Neurotrophic factors and pro-nociceptive cytokines that are released during development and under pathological conditions activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Previous studies have shown that MAPKs can transduce developmental or pathological signals by regulating transcription factors that initiate a gene expression response, a long-term effect, and directly modulate neuronal ion channels including sodium channels, thus acutely regulating dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron excitability. For example, neurotrophic growth factor activates (phosphorylates) ERK1/2 MAPK (pERK1/2) in DRG neurons, an effect that has been implicated in injury-induced hyperalgesia. However, the acute effects of pERK1/2 on sodium channels are not known. We have shown previously that activated p38 MAPK (pp38) directly phosphorylates Na(v)1.6 and Na(v)1.8 sodium channels and regulates their current densities without altering their gating properties. We now report that acute inhibition of pERK1/2 regulates resting membrane potential and firing properties of DRG neurons. We also show that pERK1 phosphorylates specific residues within L1 of Na(v)1.7, inhibition of pERK1/2 causes a depolarizing shift of activation and fast inactivation of Na(v)1.7 without altering current density, and mutation of these L1 phosphoacceptor sites abrogates the effect of pERK1/2 on this channel. Together, these data are consistent with direct phosphorylation and modulation of Na(v)1.7 by pERK1/2, which unlike the modulation of Na(v)1.6 and Na(v)1.8 by pp38, regulates gating properties of this channel but not its current density and contributes to the effects of MAPKs on DRG neuron excitability.
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ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence has demonstrated that the fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) plays a crucial role in metabolic disorders, such obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, and the secondary hypertension is the most common complication for these metabolic disorders. Intriguingly, several lines of evidence point out the potential involvement of FGF21 in not only secondary but also primary hypertension. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are remained unknown. In this short and perspective review, we highlight the potential connection between the FGF-21 and hypertension by several direct and indirect evidences based upon the current literatures and our preliminary observation. Additionally, thecurrent evidence also indicates the limitation of Myalept, a leptin-like medication approved by FDA at 2014, that has been used for the treatment of systemic metabolism disorder of adipose tissue. Taken all these data together, the FGF-21, a new metabolic regulator, would be a promising linkage factor between metabolic and circulatory systems and potential drug target for both metabolic disorders and hypertension. Journal of Nature and Science, 1(5):e93, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline used widely for cancer chemotherapy. Its primary mode of action appears to be topoisomerase II inhibition, DNA cleavage, and free radical generation. However, in non-neuronal cells, DOX also inhibits the expression of dual-specificity phosphatases (also referred to as MAPK phosphatases) and thereby inhibits the dephosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), two MAPK isoforms important for long-term memory (LTM) formation. Activation of these kinases by DOX in neurons, if present, could have secondary effects on cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. The present study used cultures of rat cortical neurons and sensory neurons (SNs) of Aplysia to examine the effects of DOX on levels of phosphorylated ERK (pERK) and phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) MAPK. In addition, Aplysia neurons were used to examine the effects of DOX on long-term enhanced excitability, long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF), and long-term synaptic depression (LTD). DOX treatment led to elevated levels of pERK and p-p38 MAPK in SNs and cortical neurons. In addition, it increased phosphorylation of the downstream transcriptional repressor cAMP response element-binding protein 2 in SNs. DOX treatment blocked serotonin-induced LTF and enhanced LTD induced by the neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2. The block of LTF appeared to be attributable to overriding inhibitory effects of p-p38 MAPK, because LTF was rescued in the presence of an inhibitor (SB203580 [4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1H-imidazole]) of p38 MAPK. These results suggest that acute application of DOX might impair the formation of LTM via the p38 MAPK pathway.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 10/2014; 34(40):13289-300. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0538-14.2014 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic pain is a common complication of diabetes. The aim of the present study was to characterise pain behaviour in a high fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) model of diabetes in the rat, investigate spinal mechanisms, and determine the effects of antidiabetic interventions. Three-week consumption of a high fat diet followed by single injection of STZ (45 mgkg(-1)) produced sustained changes in plasma insulin and glucose until day 120. Hindpaw mechanical withdrawal thresholds were significantly lowered in the model, but mechanically evoked responses of spinal neurones were unaltered, compared to HFD/vehicle rats. HFD/STZ rats had significantly lower numbers of spinal Iba-1 positive cells (morphologically identified as activated microglia) and spinal GFAP immunofluorescence (a marker of astrogliosis) in the spinal cord at day 50, compared to time-matched controls. The PPARγ ligand pioglitazone (10 mgkg(-1)) did not alter HFD/STZ induced metabolic changes or hindpaw withdrawal thresholds of HFD/STZ rats. Daily linagliptin (3 mgkg(-1)) and metformin (200 mgkg(-1)) from day 4 after model induction did not alter plasma glucose or insulin in HFD/STZ rats but significantly prevented changes in the mechanical withdrawal thresholds. The demonstration that currently prescribed antidiabetic drugs prevent aberrant pain behaviour supports the use of this model to investigate pain mechanisms associated with diabetes.Journal of Diabetes Research 02/2015; 2015:752481. DOI:10.1155/2015/752481 · 3.54 Impact Factor