Three-dimensional organization of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies

Division of High Resolution Optical Microscopy, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
Journal of Cell Science (Impact Factor: 5.33). 02/2010; 123(Pt 3):392-400. DOI: 10.1242/jcs.053496
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are mobile subnuclear organelles formed by PML and Sp100 protein. They have been reported to have a role in transcription, DNA replication and repair, telomere lengthening, cell cycle control and tumor suppression. We have conducted high-resolution 4Pi fluorescence laser-scanning microscopy studies complemented with correlative electron microscopy and investigations of the accessibility of the PML-NB subcompartment. During interphase PML-NBs adopt a spherical organization characterized by the assembly of PML and Sp100 proteins into patches within a 50- to 100-nm-thick shell. This spherical shell of PML and Sp100 imposes little constraint to the exchange of components between the PML-NB interior and the nucleoplasm. Post-translational SUMO modifications, telomere repeats and heterochromatin protein 1 were found to localize in characteristic patterns with respect to PML and Sp100. From our findings, we derived a model that explains how the three-dimensional organization of PML-NBs serves to concentrate different biological activities while allowing for an efficient exchange of components.

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    ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that acquisition of intricate patterns of activating (H3K4me3, H3K9/K14ac) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone modifications is a hallmark of KSHV latency establishment. The precise molecular mechanisms that shape the latent histone modification landscape, however, remain unknown. Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NB), also called nuclear domain 10 (ND10), have emerged as mediators of innate immune responses that can limit viral gene expression via chromatin based mechanisms. Consequently, although ND10 functions thus far have been almost exclusively investigated in models of productive herpesvirus infection, it has been proposed that they also may contribute to the establishment of viral latency. Here, we report the first systematic study of the role of ND10 during KSHV latency establishment, and link alterations in the subcellular distribution of ND10 components to a temporal analysis of histone modification acquisition and host cell gene expression during the early infection phase. Our study demonstrates that KSHV infection results in a transient interferon response that leads to induction of the ND10 components PML and Sp100, but that repression by ND10 bodies is unlikely to contribute to KSHV latency establishment. Instead, we uncover an unexpected role for soluble Sp100 protein, which is efficiently and permanently relocalized from nucleoplasmic and chromatin-associated fractions into the insoluble matrix. We show that LANA expression is sufficient to induce Sp100 relocalization, likely via mediating SUMOylation of Sp100. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of soluble Sp100 occurs precisely when repressive H3K27me3 marks first accumulate on viral genomes, and that knock-down of Sp100 (but not PML or Daxx) facilitates H3K27me3 acquisition. Collectively, our data support a model in which non-ND10 resident Sp100 acts as a negative regulator of polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) recruitment, and suggest that KSHV may actively escape ND10 silencing mechanisms to promote establishment of latent chromatin.
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