Outcome over seven years of healthy adults with and without subjective cognitive impairment

Silberstein Aging and Dementia Research Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA.
Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association (Impact Factor: 12.41). 01/2010; 6(1):11-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.jalz.2009.10.002
Source: PubMed


Subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) in older persons without manifest symptomatology is a common condition with a largely unclear prognosis. We hypothesized that (1) examining outcome for a sufficient period by using conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia would clarify SCI prognosis, and (2) with the aforementioned procedures, the prognosis of SCI subjects would differ significantly from that of demographically matched healthy subjects, free of SCI, termed no cognitive impairment (NCI) subjects.
A consecutive series of healthy subjects, aged > or =40 years, presenting with NCI or SCI to a brain aging and dementia research center during a 14-year interval, were studied and followed up during an 18-year observation window. The study population (60 NCI, 200 SCI, 60% female) had a mean age of 67.2 +/- 9.1 years, was well-educated (mean, 15.5 +/- 2.7 years), and cognitively normal (Mini-Mental State Examination, 29.1 +/- 1.2).
A total of 213 subjects (81.9% of the study population) were followed up. Follow-up occurred during a mean period of 6.8 +/- 3.4 years, and subjects had a mean of 2.9 +/- 1.6 follow-up visits. Seven NCI (14.9%) and 90 SCI (54.2%) subjects declined (P < .0001). Of NCI decliners, five declined to MCI and two to probable Alzheimer's disease. Of SCI decliners, 71 declined to MCI and 19 to dementia diagnoses. Controlling for baseline demographic variables and follow-up time, Weibull proportional hazards model revealed increased decline in SCI subjects (hazard ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-10.3), whereas the accelerated failure time model analysis with an underlying Weibull survival function showed that SCI subjects declined more rapidly, at 60% of the rate of NCI subjects (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.80). Furthermore, mean time to decline was 3.5 years longer for NCI than for SCI subjects (P = .0003).
These results indicate that SCI in subjects with normal cognition is a harbinger of further decline in most subjects during a 7-year mean follow-up interval. Relevance for community populations should be investigated, and prevention studies in this at-risk population should be explored.

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    • "Longitudinal studies have demonstrated that cognitively normal (CN) subjects with SMI have an increased risk of developing cognitive impairment compared to those without SMI [16] [17] [18]. Sometimes, SMI could be the first symptom in a continuum of memory dysfunction in AD that may still go undetected with existing standardized cognitive tests [1] [9] [18] [19]. In their meta-analysis with 14, 714 CN subjects with SMI and 15, 009 without SMI, Mitchell et al. [2] found an annual conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of 6.6% and to dementia of approximately 2.3% in older people with SMI, meaning that individuals with SMI were twice as likely to develop dementia as individuals without SMI. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Subjective memory impairment (SMI) refers to subjective awareness of initial memory decline undetectable with existing standardized cognitive tests. The Face Name Associative Memory Exam (FNAME) was created to detect memory deficits in individuals with preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported normative data of a Spanish version of FNAME (S-FNAME) in cognitively normal (CN) Spanish-speaking subjects >49. Objective: To determine whether higher SMI [a modification of Memory Failures Everyday (MFE-30)] was related to worse memory performance (S-FNAME) or associated with greater affective symptoms in subjects >49; and whether MFE-30 and FNAME were able to discriminate between CN and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects. Methods: 317 subjects (CN = 196, MCI = 121) were included in the analysis because they attended the annual "Open House Initiative" at Memory Clinic Fundació ACE, were >49 years, literate, received S-FNAME, MFE-30, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, had Mini-Mental State Exam scores ≥27, and returned to complete a comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Results: MFE-30 scores were associated with affective symptoms but not with S-FNAME performance. S-FNAME scores were related to performance on memory variables of NBACE (neuropsychological battery used in Fundació ACE). Although the MCI group showed significantly higher MFE-30 and worse S-FNAME scores than the CN group, their discriminability values were similar (Sensitivity: 49.6 versus 52.9; Specificity: 85.1 versus 83.6, respectively). Conclusions: SMI was more related to depressive symptoms than to S-FNAME memory performance; and S-FNAME scores were related to other episodic memory test performances, but neither to affective symptoms nor to SMI. MFE-30 and S-FNAME are not optimal for discriminating between CN and MCI groups. Longitudinal follow-up will determine if lower S-FNAME and higher SMI are related to increased risk of AD.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 10/2015; 48(4). DOI:10.3233/JAD-150594 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    • "Beyond the basics of this discussion, this article will discuss research on a simple , twelve-minute, meditation technique called Kirtan Kriya (KK), that positively impacts brain and memory function, cellular health, genetic expression, and well-being. Moreover, KK may reverse memory loss in subjects with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), both of which may progress to dementia [11] [12] [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although meditation is believed to be over five thousand years old, scientific research on it is in its infancy. Mitigating the extensive negative biochemical effects of stress is a superficially discussed target of Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevention, yet may be critically important. This paper reviews lifestyle and stress as possible factors contributing to AD and meditation's effects on cognition and well-being for reduction of neurodegeneration and prevention of AD. This review highlights Kirtan Kriya (KK), an easy, cost effective meditation technique requiring only 12 minutes a day, which has been successfully employed to improve memory in studies of people with subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, and highly stressed caregivers, all of whom are at increased risk for subsequent development of AD. KK has also been shown to improve sleep, decrease depression, reduce anxiety, down regulate inflammatory genes, upregulate immune system genes, improve insulin and glucose regulatory genes, and increase telomerase by 43%; the largest ever recorded. KK also improves psycho-spiritual well-being or spiritual fitness, important for maintenance of cognitive function and prevention of AD. KK is easy to learn and practice by aging individuals. It is the premise of this review that meditation in general, and KK specifically, along with other modalities such as dietary modification, physical exercise, mental stimulation, and socialization, may be beneficial as part of an AD prevention program.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 10/2015; 48(1):1-12. DOI:10.3233/JAD-142766 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    • "Amariglio and colleagues reported similar findings with subject and informant-reported cognitive and functional concerns using the CDR and objective cognitive performance as the longitudinal outcomes [59]. These findings are supported by others, who have demonstrated an association in CN individuals between subject-reported cognitive concerns and incidence of MCI and AD dementia [60] [61], although this has not been consistent across all studies [62]. Further strengthening the importance of self and informant-reported cognitive concerns for AD are studies of CN elderly demonstrating associations of such cognitive concerns with underlying brain atrophy similar to that of MCI [63] [64] and elevated cortical amyloid burden [65]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Apathy is a common neuropsychiatric symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Detecting apathy accurately may facilitate earlier diagnosis of AD. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) is a promising tool for measurement of apathy in prodromal and possibly preclinical AD. Objective: To compare the three AES sub-scales- subject-reported (AES-S), informant-reported (AES-I), and clinician-reported (AES-C)- over time in individuals at risk for AD due to MCI and advanced age (cognitively normal [CN] elderly). Methods: Mixed effects longitudinal models were used to assess predictors of score for each AES sub-scale. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess which AES sub-scales predict progression from MCI to AD dementia. Results: Fifty-seven MCI and 18 CN subjects (ages 53-86) were followed for 1.4 ± 1.2 years and 0.7 ± 0.7 years, respectively. Across the three mixed effects longitudinal models, the common findings were associations between greater apathy and greater years in study, a baseline diagnosis of MCI (compared to CN), and male gender. CN elderly self-reported greater apathy compared to that reported by informants and clinicians, while individuals with MCI under-reported their apathy compared to informants and clinicians. Of the three sub-scales, the AES-C best predicted transition from MCI to AD dementia. Conclusion: In a sample of CN elderly and elderly with MCI, apathy increased over time, particularly in men and those with MCI. AES-S scores may be more sensitive than AES-I and AES-C scores in CN elderly, but less reliable if subjects have MCI. Moreover, the AES-C sub-scale predicted progression from MCI to AD dementia.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 09/2015; 47(2):421-432. DOI:10.3233/JAD-150146 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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