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    • "The 1000 Norms Project reference dataset will stimulate high impact research activity, enabling robust evaluations with sensitive outcome measures, analysis of clinically relevant subgroups and a greater understanding of the interactions and associations between different musculoskeletal and neurological measures of health. The need for standardised measures has also been identified by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) who developed the NIH Toolbox to advocate for standard assessment of neurological and behavioural function [12]. The NIH Toolbox is a set of standard measures within the domains of cognition, motor function, sensory function and emotional health. "
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical decision-making regarding diagnosis and management largely depends on comparison with healthy or 'normal' values. Physiotherapists and researchers therefore need access to robust patient-centred outcome measures and appropriate reference values. However there is a lack of high-quality reference data for many clinical measures. The aim of the 1000 Norms Project is to generate a freely accessible database of musculoskeletal and neurological reference values representative of the healthy population across the lifespan. In 2012 the 1000 Norms Project Consortium defined the concept of 'normal', established a sampling strategy and selected measures based on clinical significance, psychometric properties and the need for reference data. Musculoskeletal and neurological items tapping the constructs of dexterity, balance, ambulation, joint range of motion, strength and power, endurance and motor planning will be collected in this cross-sectional study. Standardised questionnaires will evaluate quality of life, physical activity, and musculoskeletal health. Saliva DNA will be analysed for the ACTN3 genotype ('gene for speed'). A volunteer cohort of 1000 participants aged 3 to 100 years will be recruited according to a set of self-reported health criteria. Descriptive statistics will be generated, creating tables of mean values and standard deviations stratified for age and gender. Quantile regression equations will be used to generate age charts and age-specific centile values. This project will be a powerful resource to assist physiotherapists and clinicians across all areas of healthcare to diagnose pathology, track disease progression and evaluate treatment response. This reference dataset will also contribute to the development of robust patient-centred clinical trial outcome measures. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Physiotherapy 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.physio.2014.12.002 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    • "The NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function SM was commissioned by the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research to provide brief, efficient, and highly accessible tests to measure cognitive and emotional health, and provide a " common currency " for neurological research (Gershon et al., 2010). The NIH Toolbox divides tests into four domain batteries: Cognition, Sensation, Motor, and Emotion. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NTCB) was designed to provide a brief, efficient computerized test of key neuropsychological functions appropriate for use in children as young as 3 years of age. This report describes the performance of a large group of typically developing children and adolescents and examines the impact of age and sociocultural variables on test performance. Method: The NTCB was administered to a sample of 1,020 typically developing males and females ranging in age from 3 to 20 years, diverse in terms of socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity, as part of the new publicly accessible Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) data resource, at 9 sites across the United States. Results: General additive models of nonlinear age-functions were estimated from age-differences in test performance on the 8 NTCB subtests while controlling for family SES and genetic ancestry factors (GAFs). Age accounted for the majority of the variance across all NTCB scores, with additional significant contributions of gender on some measures, and of SES and race/ethnicity (GAFs) on all. After adjusting for age and gender, SES and GAFs explained a substantial proportion of the remaining unexplained variance in Picture Vocabulary scores. Conclusions: The results highlight the sensitivity to developmental effects and efficiency of this new computerized assessment battery for neurodevelopmental research. Limitations are observed in the form of some ceiling effects in older children, some floor effects, particularly on executive function tests in the youngest participants, and evidence for variable measurement sensitivity to cultural/socioeconomic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Neuropsychology 11/2013; 28(1). DOI:10.1037/neu0000001 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    • "Despite its importance in nutrition and quality of life, we lack appropriate and validated methodologies to measure taste sensitivity and liking in children (Chambers IV 2005; Laing et al. 2008; Mennella and Beauchamp 2008). To address this gap, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) sought an appropriate method for children for inclusion in the NIH Toolbox for Neurological and Behavioral Function (Gershon et al. 2010), which is a collection of brief assessment tools for clinicians and researchers, with emphasis on measurement in epidemiologic and longitudinal studies (Hoffman et al. 2009). The NIH Toolbox focuses on 4 domains , one of which relates to sensory functioning. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lack of methodology to assess taste in children limits its measurement in research studies that include pediatric populations. We used the Monell 2-series, forced-choice tracking method to measure sucrose preferences of a racially/ethnically diverse sample (n = 949) of children, adolescents, and adults. Reliability was assessed by comparing the results of the first series with the second series. Validity was assessed by relating participants' sucrose preferences to their preferences for foods varying in sweetness. The task required, on average, 7 presentations of aqueous sucrose solution pairs. Children and adolescents preferred more concentrated sweetness than adults (P < 0.001). Black children/adolescents preferred a more concentrated sucrose solution than did White children/adolescents even when gender, parental education level, and family income were used as covariates. Data from a single series were sufficient to detect age-related differences but insufficient to detect racial/ethnic differences in sweet preferences. Level of sweetness preferred significantly correlated with the sugar content of favorite cereals (P < 0.001) and beverages (P < 0.02). This method is brief and has evidence of reliability and external validity. Although a single series will yield useful information about age-related differences in taste preferences, the 2-series version should be considered when differences in race/ethnicity are of interest.
    Chemical Senses 04/2011; 36(4):345-55. DOI:10.1093/chemse/bjq134 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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