"The 1000 Norms Project reference dataset will stimulate high impact research activity, enabling robust evaluations with sensitive outcome measures, analysis of clinically relevant subgroups and a greater understanding of the interactions and associations between different musculoskeletal and neurological measures of health. The need for standardised measures has also been identified by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) who developed the NIH Toolbox to advocate for standard assessment of neurological and behavioural function . The NIH Toolbox is a set of standard measures within the domains of cognition, motor function, sensory function and emotional health. "
"The NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function SM was commissioned by the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research to provide brief, efficient, and highly accessible tests to measure cognitive and emotional health, and provide a " common currency " for neurological research (Gershon et al., 2010). The NIH Toolbox divides tests into four domain batteries: Cognition, Sensation, Motor, and Emotion. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NTCB) was designed to provide a brief, efficient computerized test of key neuropsychological functions appropriate for use in children as young as 3 years of age. This report describes the performance of a large group of typically developing children and adolescents and examines the impact of age and sociocultural variables on test performance.
The NTCB was administered to a sample of 1,020 typically developing males and females ranging in age from 3 to 20 years, diverse in terms of socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity, as part of the new publicly accessible Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) data resource, at 9 sites across the United States.
General additive models of nonlinear age-functions were estimated from age-differences in test performance on the 8 NTCB subtests while controlling for family SES and genetic ancestry factors (GAFs). Age accounted for the majority of the variance across all NTCB scores, with additional significant contributions of gender on some measures, and of SES and race/ethnicity (GAFs) on all. After adjusting for age and gender, SES and GAFs explained a substantial proportion of the remaining unexplained variance in Picture Vocabulary scores.
The results highlight the sensitivity to developmental effects and efficiency of this new computerized assessment battery for neurodevelopmental research. Limitations are observed in the form of some ceiling effects in older children, some floor effects, particularly on executive function tests in the youngest participants, and evidence for variable measurement sensitivity to cultural/socioeconomic factors.
"One these collaborations is the “NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function” (www.nihtoolbox.org) which was established by the NIH to develop a common set of instruments to measure cognitive, emotional, motor and sensory function across diverse cultural, ethnic and geographic groups (Gershon et al., 2010). Participants range from age 3 to 85. From the cognitive aging perspective, a major shortcoming of the initial studies developing the toolbox is the allocation of adults from age 18 to 69 in a single age group, with another group ranging in age from 70 to 85. Individuals over 85, a rapidly increasing proportion of the population, are not included. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gradual decline of cognitive ability with age, even in the absence of overt brain disease, is a growing problem. Although cognitive aging is a common and feared accompaniment of the aging process, its underlying mechanisms are not well understood and there are no highly effective means to prevent it. Additional research on cognitive aging is sorely needed, and methods that enable ready translation between human subjects and animal models stand to provide the most benefit. Here and in the six companion pieces in this special issue, we discuss a variety of challenges and opportunities for studying cognitive aging across species. We identify tests of associative memory, recognition memory, spatial and contextual memory, and working memory and executive function as cognitive domains that are age-sensitive and amenable to testing with parallel means in both humans and animal models. We summarize some of the important challenges in using animal models to test cognition. We describe unique opportunities to study cognitive aging in human subjects, such as those provided by recent large-scale initiatives to characterize cognition in large groups of subjects across the lifespan. Finally, we highlight some of the challenges of studying cognitive aging in human subjects.
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