The entorhinal cortex of the Megachiroptera: a comparative study of Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat and the straw-coloured fruit bat
ABSTRACT This study describes the organisation of the entorhinal cortex of the Megachiroptera, straw-coloured fruit bat and Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat. Using Nissl and Timm stains, parvalbumin and SMI-32 immunohistochemistry, we identified five fields within the medial (MEA) and lateral (LEA) entorhinal areas. MEA fields E(CL) and E(C) are characterised by a poor differentiation between layers II and III, a distinct layer IV and broad, stratified layers V and VI. LEA fields E(I), E(R) and E(L) are distinguished by cell clusters in layer II, a clear differentiation between layers II and III, a wide columnar layer III and a broad sublayer Va. Clustering in LEA layer II was more typical of the straw-coloured fruit bat. Timm-staining was most intense in layers Ib and II across all fields and layer III of field E(R). Parvalbumin-like staining varied along a medio-lateral gradient with highest immunoreactivity in layers II and III of MEA and more lateral fields of LEA. Sparse SMI-32-like immunoreactivity was seen only in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat. Of the neurons in MEA layer II, ovoid stellate cells account for approximately 38%, polygonal stellate cells for approximately 8%, pyramidal cells for approximately 18%, oblique pyramidal cells for approximately 6% and other neurons of variable morphology for approximately 29%. Differences between bats and other species in cellular make-up and cytoarchitecture of layer II may relate to their three-dimensional habitat. Cytoarchitecture of layer V in conjunction with high encephalisation and structural changes in the hippocampus suggest similarities in efferent hippocampal --> entorhinal --> cortical interactions between fruit bats and primates.
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- "Twenty μm horizontal sections were cut and Giemsa-stained (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) in 67 mmol KH2PO4 solution for 40 min at room temperature, differentiated in KH2PO4 for 90 s, dehydrated and cover-slipped. Mossy fiber terminals were Timm-stained following the procedure described before (Gatome et al., 2010). "
ABSTRACT: Daily life of wild mammals is characterized by a multitude of attractive and aversive stimuli. The hippocampus processes complex polymodal information associated with such stimuli and mediates adequate behavioral responses. How newly generated hippocampal neurons in wild animals contribute to hippocampal function is still a subject of debate. Here, we test the relationship between adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and habitat types. To this end, we compare wild Muridae species of southern Africa [Namaqua rock mouse (Micaelamys namaquensis), red veld rat (Aethomys chrysophilus), highveld gerbil (Tatera brantsii), and spiny mouse (Acomys spinosissimus)] with data from wild European Muridae [long-tailed wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), pygmy field mice (Apodemus microps), yellow-necked wood mice (Apodemus flavicollis), and house mice (Mus musculus domesticus)] from previous studies. The pattern of neurogenesis, expressed in normalized numbers of Ki67- and Doublecortin(DCX)-positive cells to total granule cells (GCs), is similar for the species from a southern African habitat. However, we found low proliferation, but high neuronal differentiation in rodents from the southern African habitat compared to rodents from the European environment. Within the African rodents, we observe additional regulatory and morphological traits in the hippocampus. Namaqua rock mice with previous pregnancies showed lower AHN compared to males and nulliparous females. The phylogenetically closely related species (Namaqua rock mouse and red veld rat) show a CA4, which is not usually observed in murine rodents. The specific features of the southern environment that may be associated with the high number of young neurons in African rodents still remain to be elucidated. This study provides the first evidence that a habitat can shape adult neurogenesis in rodents across phylogenetic groups.Frontiers in Neuroscience 04/2013; 7:59. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2013.00059 · 3.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Modelling entorhinal function or evaluating the consequences of neuronal losses which accompany neurodegenerative disorders requires detailed information on the quantitative cellular composition of the normal entorhinal cortex. Using design-based stereological methods, we estimated the numbers, proportions, densities and sectional areas of layer II cells in the medial entorhinal area (MEA), and its constituent caudal entorhinal (CE) and medial entorhinal (ME) fields, in the rat and mouse. We estimated layer II of the MEA to contain approximately 58,000 neurons in the rat and approximately 24,000 neurons in the mouse. Field CE accounted for more than three-quarters of the total neuron population in both species. In the rat, layer II of the MEA is comprised of 38% ovoid stellate cells, 29% polygonal stellate cells and 17% pyramidal cells. The remainder is comprised of much smaller populations of horizontal bipolar, tripolar, oblique pyramidal and small round cells. In the mouse, MEA layer II is comprised of 52% ovoid stellate cells, 22% polygonal stellate cells and 14% pyramidal cells. Significant species differences in the proportions of ovoid and polygonal stellate cells suggest differences in physiological and functional properties. The majority of MEA layer II cells contribute to the entorhinal-hippocampal pathways. The degree of divergence from MEA layer II cells to the dentate granule cells was similar in the rat and mouse. In both rat and mouse, the only dorsoventral difference we observed is a gradient in polygonal stellate cell sectional area, which may relate to the dorsoventral increase in the size and spacing of individual neuronal firing fields. In summary, we found species-specific cellular compositions of MEA layer II, while, within a species, quantitative parameters other than cell size are stable along the dorsoventral and mediolateral axis of the MEA.Neuroscience 09/2010; 170(1):156-65. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.06.048 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Species-specific characteristics of neuronal plasticity emerging from comparative studies can address the functional relevance of hippocampal or cortical plasticity in the light of ecological adaptation and evolutionary history of a given species. Here, we present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of neurogenesis in young and adult free-living Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bats. Using the markers for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), doublecortin (DCX) and polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), our findings in the hippocampus, olfactory bulb and cortical regions are described and compared to reports in other mammals. Expressed as a percentage of the total number of granule cells, PCNA- and BrdU-positive cells accounted for 0.04 in young to 0.01% in adult animals; DCX-positive cells for 0.05 (young) to 0.01% (adult); PSA-NCAM-positive cells for 0.1 (young) to 0.02% (adult), and pyknotic cells for 0.007 (young) to 0.005% (adult). The numbers were comparable to other long-lived, late-maturing mammals such as primates. A significant increase in the total granule cell number from young to adult animals demonstrated the successful formation and integration of new cells. In adulthood, granule cell number appeared stable and was surprisingly low in comparison to other species. Observations in the olfactory bulb and rostral migratory stream were qualitatively similar to descriptions in other species. In the ventral horn of the lateral ventricle, we noted prominent expression of DCX and PSA-NCAM forming a temporal migratory stream targeting the piriform cortex, possibly reflecting the importance of olfaction to these species. Low, but persistent hippocampal neurogenesis in non-echolocating fruit bats contrasted the findings in echolocating microbats, in which hippocampal neurogenesis was largely absent. Together with the observed intense cortical plasticity in the olfactory system of fruit bats we suggest a differential influence of sensory modalities on hippocampal and cortical plasticity in this mammalian order.Brain Behavior and Evolution 11/2010; 76(2):116-27. DOI:10.1159/000320210 · 4.29 Impact Factor