Zinc deficiency decreased cell viability both in endothelial EA.hy926 cells and mouse aortic culture ex vivo and its implication for anti-atherosclerosis
ABSTRACT Zinc plays a protective role in anti-atherosclerosis but the clear mechanism has not been proposed yet. In the present study, we evaluated whether zinc modulates atherosclerotic markers, VACM-1 and ICAM-1 and cell viability both in endothelial cells in vitro and mouse aortic cell viability ex vivo. In study 1, as in vitro model, endothelial EA.hy926 cells were treated with TNFalpha for 5 hours for inducing oxidative stress, and then treated with Zn-adequacy (15 microM Zn) or Zn-deficiency (0 microM Zn) for 6 hours. Pro-atherosclerosis factors, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 mRNA expression and cell viability was measured. In study 2, as ex vivo model, mouse aorta ring was used. Mourse aorta was removed and cut in ring then, cultured in a 96-well plate. Aortic ring was treated with various TNFalpha (0-30 mg/ml) and intracellular zinc chelator, N, N, N', N', -tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN, 0-30 microM) for cellular zinc depletion for 2 days and then cell viability was measured. The results showed that in in vitro study, Zn-adequate group induced more VCAM-1 & ICAM-1 mRNA expression than Zn-deficient group during 6-hour zinc treatment post-5 hour TNF-alpha treatment, unexpectedly. These results might be cautiously interpreted that zinc would biologically induce the early expression of anti-oxidative stress through the increased adhesion molecule expression for reducing atherosclerotic action, particularly under the present 6-hour zinc treatment. In ex vivo, mouse aortic ring cell viability was decreased as TNF-alpha and TPEN levels increased, which suggests that mouse aortic blood vessel cell viability was decreased, when oxidative stress increases and cellular zinc level decreases. Taken together, it can be suggested that zinc may have a protective role in anti-atherosclerosis by cell viability in endothelial cells and aorta tissue. Further study is needed to clarify how pro-atherosclerosis molecule expression is modulated by zinc.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Dr. M. Jahangir Alam, Jun 08, 2015
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ABSTRACT: AIMS: Dietary zinc deficiency has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis although the effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), important in maintaining atherosclerotic plaque integrity, are unknown. The main aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of a zinc deficient environment on VSMCs using an in vivo model.Methods and ResultsRats were maintained for 2 weeks on a marginally zinc deficient diet which resulted in a significant reduction in plasma zinc levels. Large arteries from zinc deficient rats had significantly increased apoptosis within the VSMC layers compared to arteries from rats on a zinc adequate diet. This apoptosis occurred in parallel with a known apoptotic pathway, namely dephosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-associated death promoter protein (BAD). Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, which maintains BAD phosphorylation as a pro-survival mechanism, was decreased in arteries from zinc deficient rats. The mechanisms of this in vivo effect were investigated in vitro. Cultured rat VSMCs incubated with plasma from zinc deficient rats similarly resulted in increased apoptosis in parallel with BAD dephosphorylation and decreased ERK1/2 activation. Further related apoptotic mechanisms induced by plasma from zinc deficient rats involved a prolonged rise in [Ca(2+)]i leading to subsequent activation of the phosphatase calcineurin. Calcineurin activation was required to dephosphorylate BAD. In addition, an increase in oxidative stress contributed to the apoptotic effect induced by plasma from zinc deficient rats. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, a marginally zinc deficient diet is pro-apoptotic for VSMC and this may contribute to cardiovascular disease.Cardiovascular Research 05/2013; DOI:10.1093/cvr/cvt114 · 5.81 Impact Factor