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Superior results of Total Therapy 3 (2003-33) in gene expression profiling-defined low-risk multiple myeloma confirmed in subsequent trial 2006-66 with VRD maintenance

Myeloma Institute for Research and Therapy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.43). 05/2010; 115(21):4168-73. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2009-11-255620
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Total Therapy 3 trial 2003-33 enrolled 303 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients and was noted to provide superior clinical outcomes compared with predecessor trial Total Therapy 2, especially in gene expression profiling (GEP)-defined low-risk disease. We report here on the results of successor trial 2006-66 with 177 patients, using bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone maintenance for 3 years versus bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone in year 1 and thalidomide/dexamethasone in years 2 and 3 in the 2003-33 protocol. Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) plots were super-imposable for the 2 trials, as were onset of complete response and complete response duration (CRD), regardless of GEP risk. GEP-defined high-risk designation, pertinent to 17% of patients, imparted inferior OS, EFS, and CRD in both protocols and, on multivariate analysis, was the sole adverse feature affecting OS, EFS, and CRD. Mathematical modeling of CRD in low-risk myeloma predicted a 55% cure fraction (P < .001). Despite more rapid onset and higher rate of CR than in other molecular subgroups, CRD was inferior in CCND1 without CD20 myeloma, resembling outcomes in MAF/MAFB and proliferation entities. The robustness of the GEP risk model should be exploited in clinical trials aimed at improving the notoriously poor outcome in high-risk disease.

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