Lysosome dysfunction triggers Atg7-dependent neural apoptosis.
ABSTRACT Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a process wherein bulk cytosolic proteins and damaged organelles are sequestered and degraded via the lysosome. Alterations in autophagy-associated proteins have been shown to cause neural tube closure defects, neurodegeneration, and tumor formation. Normal lysosome function is critical for autophagy completion and when altered may lead to an accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs) and caspase activation. The tumor suppressor p53 is highly expressed in neural precursor cells (NPCs) and has an important role in the regulation of both autophagy and apoptosis. We hypothesized that altered lysosome function would lead to NPC death via an interaction between autophagy- and apoptosis-associated proteins. To test our hypothesis, we utilized FGF2-expanded NPCs and the neural stem cell line, C17.2, in combination with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine (CQ) and the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1). Both CQ and Baf A1 caused concentration- and time-dependent AV accumulation, p53 phosphorylation, increased damage regulator autophagy modulator levels, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of Atg7, but not Beclin1, expression significantly inhibited CQ- and Baf A1-induced cell death, indicating that Atg7 is an upstream mediator of lysosome dysfunction-induced cell death. Cell death and/or caspase-3 activation was also attenuated by protein synthesis inhibition, p53 deficiency, or Bax deficiency, indicating involvement of the intrinsic apoptotic death pathway. In contrast to lysosome dysfunction, starvation-induced AV accumulation was inhibited by either Atg7 or Beclin1 knockdown, and Atg7 knockdown had no effect on starvation-induced death. These findings indicate that Atg7- and Beclin1-induced autophagy plays a cytoprotective role during starvation but that Atg7 has a unique pro-apoptotic function in response to lysosome dysfunction.
SourceAvailable from: Gilberto Aleph Prieto[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has multiple important physiological functions, including regulation of protein synthesis, cell growth, autophagy, and synaptic plasticity. Activation of mTOR is necessary for the many beneficial effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), including dendritic translation and memory formation in the hippocampus. At present, however, the role of mTOR in BDNF's support of survival is not clear. We report that mTOR activation is necessary for BDNF-dependent survival of primary rat hippocampal neurons, as either mTOR inhibition by rapamycin or genetic manipulation of the downstream molecule p70S6K specifically blocked BDNF rescue. Surprisingly, however, BDNF did not promote neuron survival by up-regulating mTOR-dependent protein synthesis or through mTOR-dependent suppression of caspase-3 activation. Instead, activated mTOR was responsible for BDNF's suppression of autophagic flux. shRNA against the autophagic machinery Atg7 or Atg5 prolonged the survival of neurons co-treated with BDNF and rapamycin, suggesting that suppression of mTOR in BDNF-treated cells resulted in excessive autophagy. Finally, acting as a physiological analog of rapamycin, IL-1β impaired BDNF signaling by way of inhibiting mTOR activation as follows: the cytokine induced caspase-independent neuronal death and accelerated autophagic flux in BDNF-treated cells. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of BDNF neuroprotection; BDNF not only prevents apoptosis through inhibiting caspase activation but also promotes neuron survival through modulation of autophagy. This protection mechanism is vulnerable under chronic inflammation, which deregulates autophagy through impairing mTOR signaling. These results may be relevant to age-related changes observed in neurodegenerative diseases.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2014; 289(10):20615-20629. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.568659 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autophagy is important for cell renewing for its contribution to the degradation of bulk cytoplasm, long-lived proteins, and entire organelles and its role in embryonic development is largely unknown. In our study, we investigated the function of autophagy in gastrulation of the chick embryo using both in vivo and in vitro approaches, especially in the EMT process, and we found that autophagy gene Atg7 was expressed on the apical side of the ectoderm and endoderm. Over-expression of Atg7 could enhance the expression of Atg8 and the E-cadherin, the latter of which is a crucial marker of the EMT process. We also found that the disturbance of autophagy could retard the development of chick embryos in HH4 with shorter primitive steak than that in the control group, which is a newly formed structure during EMT process. So we assumed that autophagy could affect EMT process by adhesion molecule expression. Moreover, more molecules, such as slug, chordin, shh et., which were all involved in EMT process, were detected to address the mechanism of this phenomena. We established that the inhibition of autophagy could cause developmental delay by affecting EMT process in gastrulation of chick embryos.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 09/2014; 13(17):2752-2764. DOI:10.4161/15384101.2015.945850 · 5.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lysosomes are acidic organelles essential for degradation, signalling and cell homoeostasis. In addition, they play a key role in cell death. Permeabilization of the lysosomal membrane and release of hydrolytic enzymes to the cytosol accompanies apoptosis signalling in several systems. The regulatory mechanism of lysosomal stability is, however, poorly understood. Lipophilic or amphiphilic compounds with a basic moiety will become protonated and trapped within lysosomes, and such lysosomotropic behaviour is also found in many pharmacological drugs. The natural sphingolipid sphingosine exhibits lysosomotropic detergent ability and is an endogenous candidate for controlling lysosomal membrane permeabilization. The lysosomotropic properties of certain detergents might be of use in lysosome-targeting anticancer drugs and drug delivery system in the future. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the targeting and permeabilizing properties of lysosomotropic detergents from a cellular and physicochemical perspective.Biochemical Society Transactions 10/2014; 42(5):1460-1464. DOI:10.1042/BST20140145 · 3.24 Impact Factor