Lysosome dysfunction triggers Atg7-dependent neural apoptosis.
ABSTRACT Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a process wherein bulk cytosolic proteins and damaged organelles are sequestered and degraded via the lysosome. Alterations in autophagy-associated proteins have been shown to cause neural tube closure defects, neurodegeneration, and tumor formation. Normal lysosome function is critical for autophagy completion and when altered may lead to an accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs) and caspase activation. The tumor suppressor p53 is highly expressed in neural precursor cells (NPCs) and has an important role in the regulation of both autophagy and apoptosis. We hypothesized that altered lysosome function would lead to NPC death via an interaction between autophagy- and apoptosis-associated proteins. To test our hypothesis, we utilized FGF2-expanded NPCs and the neural stem cell line, C17.2, in combination with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine (CQ) and the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1). Both CQ and Baf A1 caused concentration- and time-dependent AV accumulation, p53 phosphorylation, increased damage regulator autophagy modulator levels, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of Atg7, but not Beclin1, expression significantly inhibited CQ- and Baf A1-induced cell death, indicating that Atg7 is an upstream mediator of lysosome dysfunction-induced cell death. Cell death and/or caspase-3 activation was also attenuated by protein synthesis inhibition, p53 deficiency, or Bax deficiency, indicating involvement of the intrinsic apoptotic death pathway. In contrast to lysosome dysfunction, starvation-induced AV accumulation was inhibited by either Atg7 or Beclin1 knockdown, and Atg7 knockdown had no effect on starvation-induced death. These findings indicate that Atg7- and Beclin1-induced autophagy plays a cytoprotective role during starvation but that Atg7 has a unique pro-apoptotic function in response to lysosome dysfunction.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects motor neurons. The recruitment of autophagy (macroautophagy) and mitochondrial dysfunction are documented in ALS patients and experimental models expressing mutant forms of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) protein, but their impact in the disease remains unclear. Hypoxia is a stress closely related to the disease in patients and mutant SOD1 mice; in individual cells, hypoxia activates autophagy and regulates mitochondrial metabolism as fundamental adaptive mechanisms. Our aim was to examine whether mutant SOD1 changed this response. Hypoxia (1% O2 for 22 h) caused greater loss of viability and more marked activation of caspase 3/7 in the motor neuronal NSC-34 cell line stably transfected with the G93A mutant human SOD1 (G93A-NSC) than in the one with the wild-type SOD1 (WT-NSC) or in untransfected NSC-34. In the G93A-NSC cells there was a more marked accumulation of the LC3-II autophagy protein, attributable to autophagic stress; 3-methyladenine, which acts on initiation of autophagy, fully rescued G93A-NSC viability and reduced the activation of caspase 3/7 indicating this was a secondary event; the metabolic handling of hypoxia was inappropriate possibly contributing to the autophagic stress. Our findings evidentiate that the G93A mutation of SOD1 profoundly altered the adaptive metabolic response to hypoxia and this could increase the cell susceptibility to this stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Journal of Neurochemistry 12/2013; · 3.97 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the effects of hypoxia on the proliferation, mineralization and ultrastructure of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLFs) at various times in vitro in order to further study plateau-hypoxia-induced periodontal disease. HPLFs (fifth passage) cultured by the tissue culture method were assigned to the slight (5% O2), middle (2% O2), and severe hypoxia (1% O2) groups and the control (21% O2) group, respectively. At 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were detected. The ultrastructure of the severe hypoxia group was observed. HPLFs grew more rapidly with an increase in the degree of hypoxia at 12 and 24 h, and significant levels of proliferation (P<0.05) were observed in the severe hypoxia group at 24 h. Cell growth was restrained with an increase in the degree of hypoxia at 48 and 72 h, and the restrictions were clear (P<0.05) in the middle and severe hypoxia groups. ALP activity was restrained with increasing hypoxia at each time point. The restrictions were marked (P<0.05) in the severe hypoxia group at 24 h and in the middle and severe hypoxia groups at 48 and 72 h. However, the restriction was more marked (P<0.05) in the severe hypoxia group at 72 h. An increase was observed in the number of mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticula (RER), with slightly expanded but complete membrane structures, in the severe hypoxia group at 24 h. At 48 h, the number of mitochondria and RER decreased as the mitochondria increased in size. Furthermore, mitochondrial cristae appeared to be vague, and a RER structural disorder was observed. At 72 h, the number of mitochondria and RER decreased further when the mitochondrial cristae were broken, vacuolar degeneration occurred, and the RER particles were reduced while the number of lysosomes increased. HPLF proliferation and mineralization was restrained. Additionally, HPLF structure was broken for a relatively long period of time in the middle and severe hypoxia groups. This finding demonstrated that hypoxia was capable of damaging the metabolism, reconstruction and recovery of HPLFs. The poor state of HPLFs under hypoxic conditions may therefore initiate or aggravate periodontal disease.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 12/2013; 6(6):1553-1559. · 0.34 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: V-ATPases are highly conserved, ATP-driven proton pumps regulated by reversible dissociation of its cytosolic, peripheral V1 domain from the integral membrane Vo domain. Multiple stresses induce changes in V1- Vo assembly, but signaling mechanisms behind these changes are not understood. Here we show that certain stress-responsive changes in V-ATPase activity and assembly require the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol (3,5) bis-phosphate (PI(3,5)P2). V-ATPase activation through V1-Vo assembly in response to salt stress is strongly dependent on PI(3,5)P2 synthesis. Purified Vo complexes preferentially bind to PI(3,5)P2 on lipid arrays, suggesting direct binding between the lipid and the membrane sector of the V-ATPase. Increasing PI(3,5)P2 levels in vivo recruits the N-terminal domain of Vo sector subunit Vph1p from cytosol to membranes, independent of other subunits. This Vph1p domain is critical for V1-Vo interaction, suggesting that interaction of Vph1p with PI(3,5)P2-containing membranes stabilizes V1-Vo assembly and thus increases V-ATPase activity. These results help explain the previously described vacuolar acidification defect in yeast fab1 and vac14 mutants and suggest that human disease phenotypes associated with PI(3,5)P2 loss may arise from compromised V-ATPase stability and regulation.Molecular biology of the cell 02/2014; · 5.98 Impact Factor