Early emotional stress is associated with a life-long burden of risk for later depression and stressful life events contribute to the development of depressive episodes. In this study we investigated whether childhood stress is associated with structural brain alterations in patients with major depression (MD). Forty-three patients with MD and 44 age as well as gender matched healthy control subjects were investigated using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Region of interest analysis of the hippocampus, whole brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and assessment of childhood stress was carried out. Significantly smaller hippocampal white matter and prefrontal gray matter volume was observed in patients with MD compared to healthy controls. In particular left hippocampal white matter was smaller in patients, who had emotional childhood neglect, compared to those without neglect. For male patients this effect was seen in the left and right hippocampus. Moreover, physical neglect during childhood affected prefrontal gray matter volume in healthy subjects. Both emotional neglect and brain structural abnormalities predicted cumulative illness duration and there was a significant interaction between emotional neglect and prefrontal volumes as well as hippocampal white matter on the illness course. Childhood neglect resulted in hippocampal white matter changes in patients with major depression, pronounced at the left side and in males. Most interestingly, childhood stress and brain structure volumes independently predicted cumulative illness course. Subjects with both, structural brain changes and childhood emotional neglect seem to be at a very high risk to develop a more severe illness course.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The rostral prefrontal cortex (RPFC) is involved in reflective thought processes such as self-knowledge and person perception. We hypothesized that childhood emotional abuse, which is disruptive of emotional regulation, would differentially impact neurometabolite concentrations of the RPFC, and related neocortical areas, in adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) versus healthy controls.
GAD patients (n=16; females=11) and medically healthy volunteers (n=16; F=10) were assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), specifically the emotional abuse category. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging examined 3 regions of interest (ROI) from the most rostral slice from the Duyn et al. (1993) multivoxel imaging modality: rostral prefrontal cortex (BA 10,9), premotor cortex (BA 6,8) and secondary somatosensory and associated parietal cortex (BA 5,7). Metabolites included N-acetyl-aspartate, creatine, and choline.
GAD patients reported higher emotional abuse scores versus controls. An omnibus general linear model including 3 ROI, 3 metabolites, and laterality as dependent variables revealed a significant diagnosis by CTQ emotional abuse score interactive effect. In controls, all 3 ROI for all 3 metabolites on both sides demonstrated a significant inverse relationship with emotional abuse scores; none were significant in GAD patients.
A major limitation is the uneven distribution of emotional abuse scores between the controls and GAD patients, with GAD patients reporting higher scores.
Unlike controls, GAD patients appear compromised in forming a molecular representation reflective of magnitude of childhood emotional abuse. The neurometabolites in GAD patients appear non-aligned to childhood emotional abuse, suggesting potential consequences for normative "theory of mind" processes and emotional function in certain anxiety disorders.
"Strikingly, ES affected levels of survival of adult-born neurons exclusively in males associated with (and determinant for) a more severely impaired cognitive performance in adult ES-male mice compared with females. This is in line with previous clinical and preclinical studies indicating a higher sensitivity of males to ES (Llorente et al., 2009; Oomen et al., 2009; Frodl et al., 2010; Mak et al., 2013; Loi et al., 2014), again reinforcing the translational value of this ES model. It indeed appears that males are more vulnerable to develop mental diseases after exposure to ES. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.
"In the current study we are primarily interested in the possible moderating effects of CM on the association between MDD and hippocampal volume, because CM is a major risk factor for the onset of MDD (Kessler et al. 1997) and because two earlier studies showed that hippocampal volume loss is more pronounced in persons with MDD who also have a history of CM (Vythilingam et al. 2002; Frodl et al. 2010). It has even been suggested that a smaller hippocampal volume due to CM may render individuals more susceptible for the onset of MDD (Rao et al. 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Childhood maltreatment (CM) may modify the relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and hippocampal volume reduction. To disentangle the impact of MDD and CM on hippocampal volume we investigated the association between MDD and hippocampal volume in persons with and without a history of CM in two independent cohorts.
We used data of 262 participants from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) (mean age 37 years, 32% male) and 636 participants from the SMART-Medea study (mean age 61 years, 81% male). In both studies a 12-month diagnosis of MDD and CM were assessed using a diagnostic interview. Hippocampal volume was measured in NESDA using FreeSurfer software on 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) images and in SMART it was manually outlined on 1.5-T MR images. With analysis of covariance adjusted for intracranial volume, age, gender and lifestyle factors we estimated the effects of MDD and CM on hippocampal volume.
In both cohorts CM was not significantly associated with hippocampal volume. After pooling the data MDD was associated with smaller hippocampal volume (B = -138.90 mm3, p = 0.05) and the interaction between MDD and CM reached significance (p = 0.04); in participants with CM, MDD was related to smaller hippocampal volume (NESDA: B = -316.8 mm3, p = 0.02; SMART: B = -407.6, p = 0.046), but not in participants without CM (p > 0.05).
Our study shows that in two independent cohorts, particularly in individuals with CM, a diagnosis of MDD is related to smaller hippocampal volume. Prospective studies are needed to further determine through which mechanism CM may amplify the relationship between MDD and hippocampal volume.
Psychological Medicine 07/2015; -1:1-10. DOI:10.1017/S0033291715001415 · 5.94 Impact Factor
Demian Butenaerts, Joanna Chrzanowska-Wasko, Agnieszka Slowik, Tomasz Dziedzic,
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