Diagnosis of metastatic neoplasms: molecular approaches for identification of tissue of origin.
ABSTRACT Tumors of uncertain or unknown origin are estimated to constitute 3% to 5% of all metastatic cancer cases. Patients with these types of tumors show worse outcomes when compared to patients in which a primary tumor is identified. New molecular tests that identify molecular signatures of a tissue of origin have become available.
To review the literature on existing molecular approaches to the diagnosis of metastatic tumors of uncertain origin and discuss the current status and future developments in this area.
Published peer-reviewed literature, available information from medical organizations (National Comprehensive Cancer Network), and other publicly available information from tissue-of-origin test providers and/or manufacturers.
Molecular tests for tissue-of-origin determination in metastatic tumors are available and have the potential to significantly impact patient management. However, available validation data indicate that not all tests have shown adequate performance characteristics for clinical use. Pathologists and oncologists should carefully evaluate claims for accuracy and clinical utility for tissue-of-origin tests before using test results in patient management. The personalized medicine revolution includes the use of molecular tools for identification/confirmation of the site of origin for metastatic tumors, and in the future, this strategy might also be used to determine specific therapeutic approaches.
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ABSTRACT: Tumors whose primary site is challenging to diagnose represent a considerable proportion of new cancer cases. We present validation study results for a gene expression-based diagnostic test (the Pathwork Tissue of Origin Test) that aids in determining the tissue of origin using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens. Microarray data files were generated for 462 metastatic, poorly differentiated, or undifferentiated FFPE tumor specimens, all of which had a reference diagnosis. The reference diagnoses were masked, and the microarray data files were analyzed using a 2000-gene classification model. The algorithm quantifies the similarity between RNA expression patterns of the study specimens and the 15 tissues on the test panel. Among the 462 specimens, overall agreement with the reference diagnosis was 89% (95% CI, 85% to 91%). In addition to the positive test results (ie, rule-ins), an average of 12 tissues for each specimen could be ruled out with >99% probability. The large size of this study increases confidence in the test results. A multisite reproducibility study showed 89.3% concordance between laboratories. The Tissue of Origin Test makes the benefits of microarray-based gene expression tests for tumor diagnosis available for use with the most common type of histology specimen (ie, FFPE).The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD 01/2011; 13(1):48-56. DOI:10.1016/j.jmoldx.2010.11.001 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is diagnosed at the metastatic stage, and despite extensive diagnostic work-up, the primary tumor often remains unidentified. No data are available on familial clustering of CUP. We hypothesize that familial clustering of CUP with other cancers may be informative of the primary sites. A total of 35,168 patients with CUP were identified in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, and risks between family members were calculated for concordant (CUP-CUP) and discordant (CUP-any other cancer) cancers using standardized incidence ratio (SIR). Familial cases of CUP accounted for 2.8% of all CUP cases in the offspring generation. Familial SIR for CUP was 1.69 when a sibling was diagnosed with CUP. As to discordant associations between siblings, CUP was associated with lung (SIR, 1.87), kidney (SIR, 1.82), liver (SIR, 1.67), ovarian (SIR, 1.45), colorectal (SIR, 1.26), and breast (SIR, 1.15) cancers and melanoma (SIR, 1.26). Upper aerodigestive tract, bladder, pancreatic, and prostate cancers were additionally associated with CUP. Notably, CUP was associated with families of kidney, lung, and colorectal cancers. The present data show that CUP is not a disease of random metastatic cancers but, instead, a disease of a defined set of cancers. The association of CUP with families of kidney, lung, and colorectal cancers suggests a marked genetic basis and shared metastatic mechanisms by many cancer types. Familial sites shared by CUP generally match those arising in tissue-of-origin determinations and, hence, suggest sites of origin for CUP. Mechanistic exploration of CUP may provide insight into defense against primary tumors and the metastatic process.Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2011; 29(4):435-40. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2010.31.5614 · 17.88 Impact Factor