Article

Comparison of the success rate of letrozole and clomiphene citrate in women undergoing intrauterine insemination

Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 01/2006;
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to compare the success rate of daily administration of aromatase inhibitor letrozole at a dose of 5 mg when administrating clomiphene citrate (CC) 100 mg daily in women undergoing superovulation and IUI.
METHODS: This prospective randomized trial was done in Research and Clinical Center for Infertility (Shahid Sadoughi University), Yazd, Iran. Ninety-five patients with unexplained and mild male factor infertility were studied. Using a computer-generated random table, the patients were randomized into two groups, which were treated with 5 mg of letrozole daily (42 patients, 42 cycles) or 100 mg of CC daily (53 patients, 53 cycles). The data were analyzed using Student's t-test and chi square test.
RESULTS: The mean age and duration of infertility in both groups were similar. There was a significant difference between the two groups in the total numbers of follicles during stimulation (5.45 ± 4.2 in CC group vs. 3.07 ± 2.1 in letrozole group) (P = 0.01). No significant difference in the endometrial thickness was found between the two groups (letrozole group = 6.9 ± 2.2, CC group = 7.8 ± 1.8). The mean levels of LH and FSH in both groups were similar. P value of difference in hormone levels between two groups were 0.33 and 0.47, respectively, but there was a significant difference in mean E2 levels between the two groups (241.28 ± 167.537 in letrozole group vs. 867.34 ± 296.689 in CC group) (P = 0.018). The mean number of gonadotropin ampules used in both groups was the same. Pregnancy rate per cycle was 9.5% in the letrozole group and 5.7% in the CC group (P = 0.6). Two out of the three pregnancies in the CC group (66.6%) and one out of the four pregnancies in the letrozole group resulted in a miscarriage (25%). One twin pregnancy (33%) occurred in the letrozole group and none in the CC group. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) did not occur in either of the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS: In IUI, superovulation with clomiphene citrate and letrozole was associated with similar pregnancy rates, but the miscarriage rate was higher with clomiphene citrate.
KEY WORDS: IUI, letrozole, clomiphene citrate, superovulation.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
234 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ovarian stimulation during infertility treatment is used either alone or in conjunction with intrauterine insemination and assisted reproductive technologies. At the present time, the two main medications used for ovarian stimulation include an oral antioestrogen, clomiphene citrate and injectable gonadotrophins. In spite of the high ovulation rate, the use of clomiphene citrate is associated with adverse side effects and low pregnancy rates. In clomiphene citrate failures, gonadotrophin injections are generally the next treatment option but, especially in polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with increased risk of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and high multiple pregnancies. Therefore, an effective oral treatment that could be used without risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and with minimal monitoring is preferred. It was hypothesised that aromatase inhibitors can be administered early in the follicular phase to induce ovulation by releasing the hypothalamus and/or pituitary from oestrogen negative feedback. The success of aromatase inhibitors in induction and augmentation of ovulation has been reported. In addition, increased intraovarian androgen levels may synergise with central effects of decreased oestrogen to enhance ovarian response to gonadotrophin stimulation. This increased sensitivity to follicle-stimulating hormone may be especially useful in poor responders. The potential future applications for aromatase inhibitors in infertility management are also discussed.
    Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 04/2003; 12(3):353-71. · 4.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review describes the development and pharmacology of clomiphene and those specific characteristics of both drug and patients which determine its clinical efficacy. The studies reviewed describe clinical observation of patient characteristics (age, additional infertility diagnosis, semen quality), vaginal ultrasound observations of ovaries (number and size of pre-ovulatory follicles) and endometrial lining (thickness, pattern) in 2841 clomiphene cycles in patients who required intrauterine insemination (IUI) because of poor sperm quality or an unsatisfactory postcoital test. They show that (i) conception in clomiphene cycles is related to the number and size of pre-ovulatory follicles, endometrial thickness, patient age, pelvic adhesions, type of anovulatory disorder and semen quality; (ii) pregnancy rates per clomiphene-IUI cycle are constant through at least six cycles; (iii) multiple births cannot be prevented by withholding human chorionic gonadotrophin or advising against coitus when multiple pre-ovulation follicles are present unless all follicles down to 10-12 mm diameter are counted. We also reviewed pregnancy outcome (number of gestational sacs, babies, preclinical and clinical abortion, ectopic pregnancy and birth sex) in 1744 clomiphene pregnancies from our clinic. We found that (i) preclinical and clinical abortions are increased only slightly by clomiphene use, compared to spontaneous pregnancy; (ii) clinical abortions are decreased in patients with polycystic ovaries and luteal insufficiency who use clomiphene; (iii) conception and preclinical abortions are related to endometrial thickness prior to ovulation; (iv) ectopic pregnancies are not increased by clomiphene and (v) the ratio of male births is not altered by clomiphene, except possibly in timed insemination cycles. These studies repudiate many misconceptions regarding clomiphene. They also show that clinical outcome may be improved by pre-ovulation ultrasound monitoring of ovarian and endometrial response.
    Human Reproduction Update 01/1996; 2(6):483-506. · 8.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During the five years ending on December 31, 1981, 159 anovulatory and oligomenorrheic patients were treated with clomiphene citrate for induction of ovulation. Overall, 86% of these patients ovulated, and 49% of the patients who ovulated conceived. Life table analysis was employed to investigate factors contributing to reduced conception rates, including abnormal semen analysis, pelvic or tubal abnormalities, and poor cervical mucus. Elevated serum testosterone levels did not affect conception rates. The most significant factor contributing to reduced overall pregnancy rates was patient discontinuation of therapy. Cumulative pregnancy rates corrected for discontinuation approach 100% after ten cycles of therapy. During this period, the monthly probability of pregnancy (monthly fecundability) remained constant. Optimal pregnancy rates are attained if other infertility factors are corrected and treatment is continued for ten to 12 ovulatory cycles.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 09/1983; 62(2):196-202. · 4.80 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
10 Downloads
Available from
Jun 10, 2014