Resveratrol mobilizes endogenous copper in human peripheral lymphocytes leading to oxidative DNA breakage: a putative mechanism for chemoprevention of cancer.
ABSTRACT Plant polyphenols are important components of human diet, and a number of them are considered to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic properties against cancer. They are recognized as naturally occurring anti-oxidants but also act as pro-oxidants catalyzing DNA degradation in the presence of metal ions such as copper. The plant polyphenol resveratrol confers resistance to plants against fungal agents and has been implicated as a cancer chemopreventive agent. Of particular interest is the observation that resveratrol has been found to induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines but not in normal cells. Over the last few years, we have shown that resveratrol is capable of causing DNA breakage in cells such as human lymphocytes. Such cellular DNA breakage is inhibited by copper specific chelators but not by iron and zinc chelating agents. Similar results are obtained by using permeabilized cells or with isolated nuclei, indicating that chromatin-bound copper is mobilized in this reaction. It is well established that tissue, cellular and serum copper levels are considerably elevated in various malignancies. Therefore, cancer cells may be more subject to electron transfer between copper ions and resveratrol to generate reactive oxygen species responsible for DNA cleavage. The results are in support of our hypothesis that anti-cancer mechanism of plant polyphenols involves mobilization of endogenous copper and the consequent pro-oxidant action. Such a mechanism better explains the anti-cancer effects of resveratrol, as it accounts for the preferential cytotoxicity towards cancer cells.
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ABSTRACT: A random screening of human blood samples from 24 individuals of nonsmoker was conducted to examine the correlation between the oxidative DNA damage level of lymphocytes and the antioxidant capacity of serum or the base excision repair (BER) activity of lymphocytes. The oxidative DNA damage level was measured with comet assay containing Fpg/Endo III cleavage, and the BER activity was estimated with a modified comet assay including nuclear extract of lymphocytes for enzymatic cleavage. Antioxidant capacity was determined with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. We found that though the endogenous DNA oxidation levels varied among the individuals, each individual level appeared to be steady for at least 1 month. Our results indicate that the oxidative DNA damage level is insignificantly or weakly correlated with antioxidant capacity or BER activity, respectively. However, lymphocytes from carriers of Helicobacter pylori (HP) or Hepatitis B virus (HBV) tend to give higher levels of oxidative DNA damage (P < 0.05). Though sera of this group of individuals show no particular tendency with reduced antioxidant capacity, the respective BER activities of lymphocytes are lower in average (P < 0.05). Thus, reduction of repair activity may be associated with the genotoxic effect of HP or HBV infection.Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 11/2013; 2013:237583. DOI:10.1155/2013/237583 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Blueberry is a plant with a number of nutritional and biomedical capabilities. In the present study we initially evaluated the capacity of its juice (BJ) to inhibit the number of aberrant crypts (AC) induced with azoxymethane (AOM) in mouse. BJ was administered daily by the oral route to three groups of animals during four weeks (1.6, 4.1, and 15.0 íµí¼L/g), respectively, while AOM (10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to the mentioned groups, twice a week, in weeks two and three of the assay. We also included two control groups of mice, one administered distilled water and the other the high dose of BJ. A significant increase of AC was observed in the AOM treated animals, and a mean protection of 75.6% was determined with the two low doses of BJ tested; however, the high dose of the juice administered together with AOM increased the number of crypts more than four times the value observed in animals administered only AOM. Furthermore, we determined the antioxidant potential of BJ with an ex vivo DPPH assay and found a dose-dependent decrease with a mean of 19.5%. We also determined the DNA oxidation/antioxidation by identifying 8-hydroxy-2 í®í° -deoxyguanosine adducts and found a mean decrease of 44.3% with the BJ administration with respect to the level induced by AOM. Our results show a complex differential effect of BJ related to the tested doses, opening the need to further evaluate a number of factors so as to determine the possibility of a cocarcinogenic potential.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/379890 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Grapevine-shoot extracts (GSE), containing trans-resveratrol and resveratrol oligomers, are commercially available as food supplements. Considering the topoisomerase-targeting properties of trans-resveratrol, the question whether GSE affect these enzymes, thereby potentially causing DNA damage, was addressed. In a decatenation assay, GSE potently suppressed the catalytic activity of topoisomerase IIα (≥ 5 µg/mL). The resveratrol oligomers ε-viniferin, r2-viniferin and hopeaphenol, isolated from GSE, were also identified as topoisomerase IIαinhibitors. By 'isolating in vivo complexes of enzyme to DNA' (ICE)-bioassay, neither GSE, r2-viniferin nor hopeaphenol affected the level of enzyme-DNA-intermediates in A431 cells, thus representing catalytic inhibitors rather than topoisomerase poisons. GSE caused moderate DNA strand breaks (≥25 µg/mL) in the comet assay. Taken together, GSE presumably acts as a catalytic inhibitor of topoisomerase II with r2-viniferin and hopeaphenol as potentially contributing constituents. However, the increase of FPG-sensitive sites points towards an additional mechanism that may contribute to the DNA-damaging properties of GSE constituents.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 12/2013; 62(3). DOI:10.1021/jf4046182 · 3.11 Impact Factor