Autophagy protects the rotenone-induced cell death in alpha-synuclein overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells.
ABSTRACT Loss of dopaminergic cells induced by alpha-synuclein accumulation in substantia nigra causes the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, although autophagy has been implicated in the pathology of PD, the molecular mechanism is still unclear. To study the role of autophagy in PD pathogenesis, we established stable SH-SY5Y cell lines overexpressing wild-type or mutant alpha-synuclein proteins (A30P or A53T). Overexpression of mutant alpha-synuclein induced some protein aggregates and cell death in the absence of drug. LC3-II protein, a critical marker for autophagy, was produced in an autophagy-dependent manner. The rotenone-induced cell death was interrupted by autophagy stimulation. Autophagy activation also restored the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) impaired by rotenone in mutant alpha-synuclein expressing cells. Additionally, autophagy activation significantly relieved rotenone-induced ROS accumulation and HIF-1alpha expression in neuronal cells expressing mutant alpha-synuclein proteins. These findings indicate that autophagy plays an important scavenger role against harmful influence of toxic protein aggregates produced in rotenone-treated cells.
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most frequent neurodegenerative movement disorder. Presently, there is no causal therapy available to slow down or halt disease progression. The presynaptic protein alpha-synuclein aggregates to form intraneuronal Lewy bodies in PD. It is generally believed that intermediates on the way from monomers to the large aggregates would mediate neurotoxicity, but the precise species and mechanism responsible for neuronal death are controversially debated. To study alpha-synuclein-mediated toxicity, we developed a new model in which moderate overexpression of wild-type alpha-synuclein led to gradual death of human postmitotic dopaminergic neurons. In accordance with findings in postmortem PD brains, small oligomeric species occurred and the autophagic flux was impaired in our model. The phenothiazine neuroleptic trifluoperazine, an activator of macroautophagy, selectively reduced one particular alpha-synuclein species and rescued cells. Inversely, blocking of autophagy led to an accumulation of this oligomeric species and increased cell death. These data show that activation of autophagy is a promising approach to protect against alpha-synuclein pathology and likely acts by targeting one specific alpha-synuclein species.Neurobiology of aging 01/2014; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress or protein misfolding and aggregation may underlie this process. Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic mechanism responsible for protein degradation and recycling of damaged proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. Autophagic dysfunction may hasten the progression of neuronal degeneration. In this study, resveratrol promoted autophagic flux and protected dopaminergic neurons against rotenone-induced apoptosis. In an in vivo PD model, rotenone induced loss of dopaminergic neurons, increased oxidation of mitochondrial proteins and promoted autophagic vesicle development in brain tissue. The natural phytoalexin resveratrol prevented rotenone-induced neuronal apoptosis in vitro, and this pro-survival effect was abolished by an autophagic inhibitor. Although both rotenone and resveratrol promoted LC3-II accumulation, autophagic flux was inhibited by rotenone and augmented by resveratrol. Further, rotenone reduced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, whereas resveratrol increased HO-1 expression. Pharmacological inhibition of HO-1 abolished resveratrol-mediated autophagy and neuroprotection. Notably, the effects of a pharmacological inducer of HO-1 were similar to those of resveratrol, and protected against rotenone-induced cell death in an autophagy-dependent manner, validating the hypothesis of HO-1 dependent autophagy in preventing neuronal death in the in vitro PD model. Collectively, our findings suggest that resveratrol induces HO-1 expression and prevents dopaminergic cell death by regulating autophagic flux; thus protecting against rotenone-induced neuronal apoptosis.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 15(1):1625-46. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives Modified Yeolda-Hanso tang (MYH) is a traditional herbal formula in Korea for various diseases. MYH is containing the 10 herbs : Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, Angelica tenuissima Nakai, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq), Angelicae Dahurica, Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom, Raphanus sativa L., Polygala tenuifolia (Willd), Acorus gramineus Soland and Dimocarpus longan Lour. The 10 herbs is constituted as a ratio of the 6:4:2:1:2:2:2:4:6:6. We investigated neuroprotective effects of MYH on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and evaluated the ability of MYH to prevent and treat for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease via basal autophagy enhancement. Methods Pharmacological induction of Autophagy by MYH in SH-SY5Y cells: Induction of autophagy by MYH in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was carreid out by immunoblot analysis with several autophagy markers. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with MYH at the concentration of 400 and for 24 hr. Specifically, the autophagosome proteins LC3 II and Atg5 levels were increased and autophagy pathway related proteins such as beclin-1, PI3 Kinase class III protein, ULK1, mTOR and AMPK were activated. Conclusions MYH can enhance the induction of autophagy through key regulator AMPK, mTOR, and Beclin-1 and it should be considered as a possible candidate of neuroprotective agents for such as Parkinson's disease.Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine. 09/2013; 25(3).