Article

Phase 1 safety and immunogenicity evaluation of ADVAX, a multigenic, DNA-based clade C/B' HIV-1 candidate vaccine.

Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, New York, New York, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 01/2010; 5(1):e8617. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008617
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We conducted a Phase I dose escalation trial of ADVAX, a DNA-based candidate HIV-1 vaccine expressing Clade C/B' env, gag, pol, nef, and tat genes. Sequences were derived from a prevalent circulating recombinant form in Yunnan, China, an area of high HIV-1 incidence. The objective was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of ADVAX in human volunteers.
ADVAX or placebo was administered intramuscularly at months 0, 1 and 3 to 45 healthy volunteers not at high risk for HIV-1. Three dosage levels [0.2 mg (low), 1.0 mg (mid), and 4.0 mg (high)] were tested. Twelve volunteers in each dosage group were assigned to receive ADVAX and three to receive placebo in a double-blind design. Subjects were followed for local and systemic reactogenicity, adverse events, and clinical laboratory parameters. Study follow up was 18 months. Humoral immunogenicity was evaluated by anti-gp120 binding ELISA. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNgamma ELISpot assay and intracellular cytokine staining. ADVAX was safe and well-tolerated, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. Local and systemic reactogenicity events were reported by 64% and 42% of vaccine recipients, respectively. The majority of events were mild. The IFNgamma ELISpot response rates to any HIV antigen were 0/9 (0%) in the placebo group, 3/12 (25%) in the low-dosage group, 4/12 (33%) in the mid-dosage group, and 2/12 (17%) in the high-dosage group. Overall, responses were generally transient and occurred to each gene product, although volunteers responded to single antigens only. Binding antibodies to gp120 were not detected in any volunteers, and HIV seroconversion did not occur.
ADVAX delivered intramuscularly is safe, well-tolerated, and elicits modest but transient cellular immune responses.
Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00249106.

1 Bookmark
 · 
150 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Study Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled phase I trial. Methods The trial was conducted in 32 HIV-uninfected healthy volunteers to assess the safety and immunogenicity of prime-boost vaccination regimens with either 2 doses of ADVAX, a DNA vaccine containing Chinese HIV-1 subtype C env gp160, gag, pol and nef/tat genes, as a prime and 2 doses of TBC-M4, a recombinant MVA encoding Indian HIV-1 subtype C env gp160, gag, RT, rev, tat, and nef genes, as a boost in Group A or 3 doses of TBC-M4 alone in Group B participants. Out of 16 participants in each group, 12 received vaccine candidates and 4 received placebos. Results Both vaccine regimens were found to be generally safe and well tolerated. The breadth of anti-HIV binding antibodies and the titres of anti-HIV neutralizing antibodies were significantly higher (p<0.05) in Group B volunteers at 14 days post last vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies were detected mainly against Tier-1 subtype B and C viruses. HIV-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT responses were directed mostly to Env and Gag proteins. Although the IFN-γ ELISPOT responses were infrequent after ADVAX vaccinations, the response rate was significantly higher in group A after 1st and 2nd MVA doses as compared to the responses in group B volunteers. However, the priming effect was short lasting leading to no difference in the frequency, breadth and magnitude of IFN-γELISPOT responses between the groups at 3, 6 and 9 months post-last vaccination. Conclusions Although DNA priming resulted in enhancement of immune responses after 1st MVA boosting, the overall DNA prime MVA boost was not found to be immunologically superior to homologous MVA boosting.
    PLoS One. 2013 Feb;8(2):e55831. 02/2013;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The importance of follicular T helper (TFH) cells and the germinal center (GC) reaction in the humoral immune response has become clear in recent years, however the role of TFH cells and the GC in an HIV vaccine strategy remains unclear. In this study, we primed mice with gp120-encoding DNA and boosted with gp120 protein, a regimen previously shown to induce high titers of high affinity and cross-reactive anti-gp120 Abs. Priming with gp120 DNA caused increased TFH cell differentiation, GC B cells, and antigen-specific antibody titers, compared with priming with gp120 protein. Priming with DNA also caused more activated CD4(+) T cells to become TFH cells and more GC B cells to become memory cells. Deletion of BCL6 midway through the vaccine regimen resulted in loss of TFH cells and GCs, and, unexpectedly, increased anti-gp120 IgG titers and avidity. Our data suggests vaccination with gp120-encoding DNA elicits a stronger and more rapid TFH and GC response than gp120 protein. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the GC reaction may actually limit antigen-specific IgG secretion in the context of repeated immunizations.
    Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 04/2014; 10(7).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: New influenza A viruses with pandemic potential periodically emerge due to viral genomic reassortment. In the face of pandemic threats, production of conventional egg-based vaccines is time consuming and of limited capacity. We have developed in this study a novel DNA vaccine in which viral hemagglutinin (HA) is bivalently targeted to MHC class II (MHC II) molecules on APCs. Following DNA vaccination, transfected cells secreted vaccine proteins that bound MHC II on APCs and initiated adaptive immune responses. A single DNA immunization induced within 8 d protective levels of strain-specific Abs and also cross-reactive T cells. During the Mexican flu pandemic, a targeted DNA vaccine (HA from A/California/07/2009) was generated within 3 wk after the HA sequences were published online. These results suggest that MHC II-targeted DNA vaccines could play a role in situations of pandemic threats. The vaccine principle should be extendable to other infectious diseases.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2013; · 5.36 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
58 Downloads
Available from
Jun 2, 2014