To describe the cognitive and behavioral phenotypic features of the Potocki-Lupski syndrome (duplication 17p11.2), a recently recognized syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and developmental delays.
Fifteen subjects were enrolled in an extensive multidisciplinary clinical protocol. Cognitive and behavior evaluations included a parent-report medical and psychological history form, intellectual assessment and assessments of adaptive behavior, executive functioning, and maladaptive behavior and emotions. Eight of the families completed an Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic.
The majority of patients (13 of 15) presented with intellectual disability. Moreover, the majority of patients also had moderate to severe behavioral difficulties, including atypicality, withdrawal, anxiety, and inattention. Many patients characterized also presented with autistic symptom pictures, some of whom (10 of 15) met diagnostic criteria for an autistic spectrum disorder, namely autistic disorder or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified.
This work expands on the behavioral phenotype of duplication 17p11.2 (Potocki-Lupski syndrome). Further phenotypic analysis will aid in clinical diagnosis, counseling, and management of this newly characterized microduplication syndrome. The association between this syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder may contribute to further understanding the etiology of the pervasive developmental disorders.
"We presented here a case of PTLS which, both behaviorally and in terms of the specifics of his brain functioning , does not fit the categorization of ASD and permits the formulation of the hypothesis that the central feature of PTLS is in language (not social) dysfunction. Although it has been reported that 80% of PTLS patients show some autistic features  , there are reports of individuals with PTLS who demonstrate none of these features  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS; OMIM 610883) is a genomic syndrome that arises as a result of a duplication of 17p11.2. Although numerous cases of individuals with PTLS have been presented in the literature, its behavioral characterization is still ambiguous. We present a male child with a de novo dup(17)(p11.2p11.2) and he does not possess any autistic features, but is characterized by severe speech and language impairment. In the context of the analyses of this patient and other cases of PTLS, we argue that the central feature of the syndrome appears to be related to diminished speech and language capacity, rather than the specific social deficits central to autism.
Brain & development 12/2011; 34(8):700-3. DOI:10.1016/j.braindev.2011.11.003 · 1.88 Impact Factor
"The clinical presentation of PTLS includes mental retardation, autistic features, hyperactivity, developmental delay and dysmorphic features. In addition, PTLS patients present hypotonia, poor feeding and difficulty to thrive in infancy, oral-pharyngeal dysphasia, obstructive and central sleep apnea, structural cardiovascular abnormalities, electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities, behavioral abnormalities, and hypermetropia [24-26] (Table 1). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genomic structural changes, such as gene Copy Number Variations (CNVs) are extremely abundant in the human genome. An enormous effort is currently ongoing to recognize and catalogue human CNVs and their associations with abnormal phenotypic outcomes. Recently, several reports related neuropsychiatric diseases (i.e. autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, mental retardation, behavioral problems, epilepsy) with specific CNV. Moreover, for some conditions, both the deletion and duplication of the same genomic segment are related to the phenotype. Syndromes associated with CNVs (microdeletion and microduplication) have long been known to display specific neurobehavioral traits. It is important to note that not every gene is susceptible to gene dosage changes and there are only a few dosage sensitive genes. Smith-Magenis (SMS) and Potocki-Lupski (PTLS) syndromes are associated with a reciprocal microdeletion and microduplication within chromosome 17p11.2. in humans. The dosage sensitive gene responsible for most phenotypes in SMS has been identified: the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1). Studies on mouse models and humans suggest that RAI1 is likely the dosage sensitive gene responsible for clinical features in PTLS. In addition, the human RAI1 gene has been implicated in several neurobehavioral traits as spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA2), schizophrenia and non syndromic autism. In this review we discuss the evidence of RAI1 as a dosage sensitive gene, its relationship with different neurobehavioral traits, gene structure and mutations, and what is known about its molecular and cellular function, as a first step in the elucidation of the mechanisms that relate dosage sensitive genes with abnormal neurobehavioral outcomes.
Current Genomics 12/2010; 11(8):607-17. DOI:10.2174/138920210793360952 · 2.34 Impact Factor
"Studies on mouse models  and humans [20,21] indicate that RAI1 is likely the dosage sensitive gene responsible for clinical features in the Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS), (OMIM# 610883) a neurobehavioral disorder with autistic features that is caused by reciprocal duplication of the 17p11.2 region [20-23]. The RAI1 gene consists of six exons  that span over 120 kb. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smith-Magenis Syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome in which the dosage sensitive gene has been identified: the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1). Little is known about the function of human RAI1.
We generated the full-length cDNA of the wild type protein and five mutated forms: RAI1-HA 2687delC, RAI1-HA 3103delC, RAI1 R960X, RAI1-HA Q1562R, and RAI1-HA S1808N. Four of them have been previously associated with SMS clinical phenotype. Molecular weight, subcellular localization and transcription factor activity of the wild type and mutant forms were studied by western blot, immunofluorescence and luciferase assays respectively. The wild type protein and the two missense mutations presented a higher molecular weight than expected, localized to the nucleus and activated transcription of a reporter gene. The frameshift mutations generated a truncated polypeptide with transcription factor activity but abnormal subcellular localization, and the same was true for the 1-960aa N-terminal half of RAI1. Two different C-terminal halves of the RAI1 protein (1038aa-end and 1229aa-end) were able to localize into the nucleus but had no transactivation activity.
Our results indicate that transcription factor activity and subcellular localization signals reside in two separate domains of the protein and both are essential for the correct functionality of RAI1. The pathogenic outcome of some of the mutated forms can be explained by the dissociation of these two domains.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.