Bloodstream form Trypanosome plasma membrane proteins: antigenic variation and invariant antigens.
ABSTRACT Trypanosoma brucei is exposed to the adaptive immune system and complement in the blood of its mammalian hosts. The aim of this review is to analyse the role and regulation of the proteins present on the external face of the plasma membrane in the long-term persistence of an infection and transmission. In particular, the following are addressed: (1) antigenic variation of the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), (2) the formation of an effective VSG barrier shielding invariant surface proteins, and (3) the rapid uptake of VSG antibody complexes combined with degradation of the immunoglobulin and recycling of the VSG.
SourceAvailable from: Uday KishoreMicrobial Pathogenesis: Infection and Immunity, Edited by Uday Kishore, Annapurna Nayak, 01/2014: pages 167-202; Springer-Landes Bioscience., ISBN: 978-1-4614-9529-1
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ABSTRACT: The PfEMP1 family of surface proteins is central for Plasmodium falciparum virulence and must retain the ability to bind to host receptors while also diversifying to aid immune evasion. The interaction between CIDRα1 domains of PfEMP1 and endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is associated with severe childhood malaria. We combine crystal structures of CIDRα1:EPCR complexes with analysis of 885 CIDRα1 sequences, showing that the EPCR-binding surfaces of CIDRα1 domains are conserved in shape and bonding potential, despite dramatic sequence diversity. Additionally, these domains mimic features of the natural EPCR ligand and can block this ligand interaction. Using peptides corresponding to the EPCR-binding region, antibodies can be purified from individuals in malaria-endemic regions that block EPCR binding of diverse CIDRα1 variants. This highlights the extent to which such a surface protein family can diversify while maintaining ligand-binding capacity and identifies features that should be mimicked in immunogens to prevent EPCR binding. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Cell Host & Microbe 12/2014; 17(1). DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2014.11.007 · 12.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SUMMARY African trypanosomes have been around for more than 100 million years, and have adapted to survival in a very wide host range. While various indigenous African mammalian host species display a tolerant phenotype towards this parasitic infection, and hence serve as perpetual reservoirs, many commercially important livestock species are highly disease susceptible. When considering humans, they too display a highly sensitive disease progression phenotype for infections with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, while being intrinsically resistant to infections with other trypanosome species. As extracellular trypanosomes proliferate and live freely in the bloodstream and lymphatics, they are constantly exposed to the immune system. Due to co-evolution, this environment however no longer poses a hostile threat, but has become the niche environment where trypanosomes thrive and obligatory await transmission through the bites of tsetse flies or other haematophagic vectors, ideally without causing severe side infection-associated pathology to their host. Hence, African trypanosomes have acquired various mechanisms to manipulate and control the host immune response, evading effective elimination. Despite the extensive research into trypanosomosis over the past 40 years, many aspects of the anti-parasite immune response remain to be solved and no vaccine is currently available. Here we review the recent work on the different escape mechanisms employed by African Trypanosomes to ensure infection chronicity and transmission potential.Parasitology 12/2014; DOI:10.1017/S0031182014001838 · 2.35 Impact Factor