Engineered rings of mixed yeast Lsm proteins show differential interactions with translation factors and U-rich RNA.
ABSTRACT The Lsm proteins organize as heteroheptameric ring assemblies capable of binding RNA substrates and ancillary protein factors. We have constructed simplified Lsm polyproteins that organize as multimeric ring structures as analogues of the functional Lsm complexes. Polyproteins Lsm[2+3], Lsm[4+1], and Lsm[5+6] incorporate natural sequence extensions as linker peptides between the core Lsm domains. In solution, the recombinant products organize as stable ring oligomers (75 A wide, 20 A pores) in discrete tetrameric and octameric forms. Following immobilization, the polyproteins successfully act as affinity pull-down ligands for proteins within yeast lysate, including native Lsm proteins. Interaction partners were consistent with current models of the mixed Lsm ring assembly in vivo but also suggest that dynamic rearrangements of Lsm protein complexes can occur. The Lsm polyprotein ring complexes were seen in gel shift assays to have a preference for U-rich RNA sequences, with tightest binding measured for Lsm[2+3] with U(10). Polyprotein rings containing truncated forms of Lsm1 and Lsm4 were found to associate with translation, initiation, and elongation protein factors in an RNA-dependent manner. Our findings suggest Lsm1 and/or Lsm4 can interact with translationally active mRNA.
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ABSTRACT: This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, grown in spaceflight conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that C. albicans subjected to short-term spaceflight culture differentially regulated 452 genes compared to synchronous ground controls, which represented 8.3% of the analyzed ORFs. Spaceflight-cultured C. albicans-induced genes involved in cell aggregation (similar to flocculation), which was validated by microscopic and flow cytometry analysis. We also observed enhanced random budding of spaceflight-cultured cells as opposed to bipolar budding patterns for ground samples, in accordance with the gene expression data. Furthermore, genes involved in antifungal agent and stress resistance were differentially regulated in spaceflight, including induction of ABC transporters and members of the major facilitator family, downregulation of ergosterol-encoding genes, and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance. Finally, downregulation of genes involved in actin cytoskeleton was observed. Interestingly, the transcriptional regulator Cap1 and over 30% of the Cap1 regulon was differentially expressed in spaceflight-cultured C. albicans. A potential role for Cap1 in the spaceflight response of C. albicans is suggested, as this regulator is involved in random budding, cell aggregation, and oxidative stress resistance; all related to observed spaceflight-associated changes of C. albicans. While culture of C. albicans in microgravity potentiates a global change in gene expression that could induce a virulence-related phenotype, no increased virulence in a murine intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection model was observed under the conditions of this study. Collectively, our data represent an important basis for the assessment of the risk that commensal flora could play during human spaceflight missions. Furthermore, since the low fluid-shear environment of microgravity is relevant to physical forces encountered by pathogens during the infection process, insights gained from this study could identify novel infectious disease mechanisms, with downstream benefits for the general public.PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e80677. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Eri1 is an evolutionarily conserved 3'-5' exoribonuclease that participates in 5.8S rRNA 3' end processing and turnover of replication-dependent histone mRNAs. Over the course of evolution, Eri1 has also been recruited into a variety of conserved and species-specific regulatory small RNA pathways that include endogenous small interfering (si)RNAs and miRNAs. Recent advances in Eri1 biology illustrate the importance of RNA metabolism in epigenetic gene regulation and illuminate common principles and players in RNA biogenesis and turnover. In this review, we highlight Eri1 as a member of a growing class of ribosome- and histone mRNA-associated proteins that have been recruited into divergent RNA metabolic pathways. We summarize recent advances in the understanding of Eri1 function in these pathways and discuss how Eri1 impacts gene expression and physiology in a variety of eukaryotic species. This emerging view highlights the possibility for crosstalk and coregulation of diverse cellular processes regulated by RNA.Trends in Genetics 06/2014; · 11.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The P body protein LSm1 stimulates translation and replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). As the liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) is required for HCV replication and is associated with P bodies, we investigated whether regulation of HCV by LSm1 involves miR-122. Here, we demonstrate that LSm1 contributes to activation of HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-driven translation by miR-122. This role for LSm1 is specialized for miR-122 translation activation, as LSm1 depletion does not affect the repressive function of miR-122 at 3' untranslated region (UTR) sites, or miR-122-mediated cleavage at a perfectly complementary site. We find that LSm1 does not influence recruitment of the microRNA (miRNA)-induced silencing complex to the HCV 5'UTR, implying that it regulates miR-122 function subsequent to target binding. In contrast to the interplay between miR-122 and LSm1 in translation, we find that LSm1 is not required for miR-122 to stimulate HCV replication, suggesting that miR-122 regulation of HCV translation and replication have different requirements. For the first time, we have identified a protein factor that specifically contributes to activation of HCV IRES-driven translation by miR-122, but not to other activities of the miRNA. Our results enhance understanding of the mechanisms by which miR-122 and LSm1 regulate HCV.Nucleic Acids Research 10/2013; · 8.81 Impact Factor