Converting intestine into esophagus Anterior-posterior patterning of the vertebrate gut requires Cdx2

Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) (Impact Factor: 4.57). 02/2010; 9(4):634-5. DOI: 10.4161/cc.9.4.10929
Source: PubMed


Comment on: Gao N, et al. Dev Cell 2009; 16:588-99.

1 Read
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The homeobox gene Cdx2, a homologue of the Drosophila gene caudal, has been implicated in the control of cell differentiation in the intestinal epithelium. Recently, we showed that mice in which one allele of the Cdx2 gene had been inactivated by homologous recombination developed multiple intestinal polyp-like lesions that did not express Cdx2 and that contained areas of squamous metaplasia in the form of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium, similar to that occurring in the mouse esophagus and forestomach. We have now examined colonic lesions from 98 Cdx2+/− mice and report that the lesions are composed of heterotopic stomach and small intestinal mucosa. We conclude that Cdx2 directs endodermal differentiation toward a caudal phenotype and that haploinsufficient levels of expression in the developing distal intestine lead to homeotic transformation to a more rostral endodermal phenotype, such as forestomach epithelium that does not express Cdx2 during normal development. Intercalary growth (epimorphic regeneration), which previously has never been described in mammals, then occurs, resulting in the ordered “filling in” of tissue types at the discontinuity between the gastric and colonic epithelia. This intercalary growth in a restricted space results in the formation of the polypoid lesions observed.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/1999; 96(13):7318-7323. DOI:10.1073/pnas.96.13.7318 · 9.67 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In Drosophila, disturbing the expression of the homeobox gene caudal causes a severe disruption in body segmentation and global body patterning. There are three mouse homologues of Drosophila caudal: Cdx1 (ref. 2), Cdx2 (ref. 3) and Cdx4 (ref. 4). We have generated a null mutation of murine Cdx2 by homologous recombination. Cdx2 homozygote null mutants die between 3.5 and 5.5 days post coitum (d.p.c.). Cdx2 heterozygote mutants exhibit a variable phenotype, with many showing tail abnormalities or stunted growth. Skeletal analysis demonstrates a homeotic shift of vertebrae and compatible malformations of the ribs. Within the first three months of life, 90% of Cdx2 heterozygotes develop multiple intestinal adenomatous polyps, particularly in the proximal colon. These polyps occasionally contain areas of true metaplasia. In contrast to the surrounding intestinal epithelium, the neoplastic cells do not express Cdx2 from the remaining allele. These results suggest that Cdx2 mutation is the primary event in the genesis of some intestinal tumours.
    Nature 04/1997; 386(6620):84-7. DOI:10.1038/386084a0 · 41.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pdx1 (IPF-1 in humans, which is altered in MODY-4) is essential for pancreas development and mature beta-cell function. Pdx1 is expressed dynamically within the developing foregut, but how its expression characteristics are linked to the various steps of organ specification, differentiation, and function is unknown. Deletion of a conserved enhancer region (Area I-II-III) from Pdx1 produced a hypomorphic allele (Pdx1(DeltaI-II-III)) with altered timing and level of expression, which was studied in combination with wild-type and protein-null alleles. Lineage labeling in homozygous Area I-II-III deletion mutants (Pdx1(DeltaI-II-III/DeltaI-II-III)) revealed lack of ventral pancreatic bud specification and early-onset hypoplasia in the dorsal bud. Acinar tissue formed in the hypoplastic dorsal bud, but endocrine maturation was greatly impaired. While Pdx1(-/-) (protein-null) mice have nonpancreatic abnormalities (e.g., distorted pylorus, absent Brunner's glands), these structures formed normally in Pdx1(DeltaI-II-III/DeltaI-II-III) and Pdx1(DeltaI-II-III/-) mice. Surprisingly, heterozygous (Pdx1(+/DeltaI-II-III)) mice had abnormal islets and a more severe prediabetic condition than Pdx1(+/-) mice. These findings provide in vivo evidence of the differential requirements for the level of Pdx1 gene activity in the specification and differentiation of the various organs of the posterior foregut, as well as in pancreas and gut endocrine cell differentiation.
    Genes & Development 02/2006; 20(2):253-66. DOI:10.1101/gad.1360106 · 10.80 Impact Factor


1 Read
Available from