Article

IL1-receptor antagonist anakinra provides long-lasting efficacy in the treatment of refractory adult-onset Still's disease

Annals of the rheumatic diseases (Impact Factor: 9.27). 02/2010; 69(2):466-7. DOI: 10.1136/ard.2009.108068
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare inflammatory disorder characterized by hectic spiking fever, evanescent rash and joint involvement. Prognosis is highly variable upon disease course and specific involvements, ranging from benign and limited outcome to chronic destructive polyarthritis and/or life-threatening events in case of visceral complications or reactive hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (RHL). AOSD remains a debatable entity at the frontiers of autoimmune diseases and autoinflammatory disorders. The pivotal role of macrophage cell activation leading to a typical Th1 cytokine storm is now well established in AOSD, and confirmed by the benefits using treatments targeting TNF-α, IL-1β or IL-6 in refractory patients. However, it remains difficult to determine predictive factors of outcome and to draw guidelines for patient management. Herein, reviewing literature and relying on our experience in a series of 8 refractory AOSD patients, we question nosology and postulate that different cytokine patterns could underlie contrasting clinical expressions, as well as responses to targeted therapies. We therefore propose to dichotomize AOSD according to its clinical presentation. On the one hand, ‘systemic AOSD’ patients, exhibiting the highest inflammation process driven by excessive IL-18, IL-1β and IL-6 production, would be at risk of life-threatening complications (such as multivisceral involvements and RHL), and would preferentially respond to IL-1β and IL-6 antagonists. On the other hand, ‘rheumatic AOSD’ patients, exhibiting pre-eminence of joint involvement driven by IL-8 and IFN-γ production, would be at risk of articular destructions, and would preferentially respond to TNF-α blockers.
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    ABSTRACT: A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammation has been expanded to include nonhereditary collagen-like diseases, idiopathic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. As more patients are reported to have clinical features of autoinflammation and autoimmunity, the boundary between these two pathologic ends is becoming blurred. An overview of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, PFAPA syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uveitis, pericarditis, Behçet’s disease, gout, Sjögren’s syndrome, interstitial lung diseases, and Still’s disease is presented to highlight the fundamental points that interleukin-1 displays in the cryptic interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems.
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    ABSTRACT: Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD), a systemic inflammatory disorder, is often considered a part of the spectrum of the better-known systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, with later age onset. The diagnosis is primarily clinical and necessitates the exclusion of a wide range of mimicking disorders. AOSD is a heterogeneous entity, usually presenting with high fever, arthralgia, skin rash, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly accompanied by systemic manifestations. The diagnosis is clinical and empirical, where patients are required to meet inclusion and exclusion criteria with negative immunoserological results. There are no clear-cut diagnostic radiological or laboratory signs. Complications of AOSD include transient pulmonary hypertension, macrophage activation syndrome, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and amyloidosis. Common laboratory abnormalities include neutrophilic leukocytosis, abnormal liver function tests, and elevated acute-phase reactants (ESR, CRP, ferritin). Treatment consists of anti-inflammatory medications. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have limited efficacy, and corticosteroid therapy and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs are usually required. Recent advances have revealed a pivotal role of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-18 in disease pathogenesis, giving rise to the development of novel targeted therapies aiming at optimal disease control. The review aims to summarize recent advances in pathophysiology and potential therapeutic strategies in AOSD.
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