IL1-receptor antagonist anakinra provides long-lasting efficacy in the treatment of refractory adult-onset Still's disease

Annals of the rheumatic diseases (Impact Factor: 9.27). 02/2010; 69(2):466-7. DOI: 10.1136/ard.2009.108068
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: There is an expanding role for interleukin (IL)-1 in diseases from gout to cancer. More than any other cytokine family, the IL-1 family is closely linked to innate inflammatory and immune responses. This linkage is because the cytoplasmic segment of all members of the IL-1 family of receptors contains a domain, which is highly homologous to the cytoplasmic domains of all toll-like receptors (TLRs). This domain, termed "toll IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain," signals as does the IL-1 receptors; therefore, inflammation due to the TLR and the IL-1 families is nearly the same. Fundamental responses such as the induction of cyclo-oxygenase type 2, increased surface expression of cellular adhesion molecules and increased gene expression of a broad number of inflammatory molecules characterizes IL-1 signal transduction as it does for TLR agonists. IL-1β is the most studied member of the IL-1 family because of its role in mediating autoinflammatory disease. However, a role for IL-1α in disease is being validated because of the availability of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to human IL-1α. There are presently three approved therapies for blocking IL-1 activity. Anakinra is a recombinant form of the naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist, which binds to the IL-1 receptor and prevents the binding of IL-1β as well as IL-1α. Rilonacept is a soluble decoy receptor that neutralizes primarily IL-1β but also IL-1α. Canakinumab is a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes only IL-1β. Thus, a causal or significant contributing role can be established for IL-1β and IL-1α in human disease.
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    ABSTRACT: This review aimed to evaluate the risk of active tuberculosis (TB) occurrence in patients with rheumatic disorders receiving non-anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) targeted biologics anakinra (ANK), tocilizumab (TCZ), rituximab (RTX), abatacept (ABA), and recently approved anti-TNF golimumab (GOL), and certolizumab pegol (CTP). In recent findings, no cases of active TB were recorded in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other rheumatic conditions treated with anti-CD20+ RTX and anti-CD28 ABA. No patient receiving anti-interleukin 1 (IL-1) ANK developed active TB, and an increased risk was excluded in a Canadian database. In contrast, 8 active TB cases were observed in 21 trials of patients with RA receiving anti-IL-6 TCZ, while no increased TB risk resulted from Japanese postmarketing surveillance. Among GOL-treated and CTP-treated patients, 8 and 10 active TB cases occurred, respectively, while no data are available from registries. However, all but 1 TB case recorded in patients treated with TCZ, GOL, and CTP occurred in TB-endemic countries. No TB risk resulted for ANK, RTX, and ABA, suggesting pretreatment screening procedures for latent TB infection detection are unnecessary. Because all TB cases occurred in countries at high risk for TB, where TB exposure could have occurred during treatment, no definitive conclusions can be drawn for TCZ, GOL, and CTP.
    Journal of Rheumatology Supplement 05/2014; 91:56-64. DOI:10.3899/jrheum.140103
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    ABSTRACT: A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammation has been expanded to include nonhereditary collagen-like diseases, idiopathic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. As more patients are reported to have clinical features of autoinflammation and autoimmunity, the boundary between these two pathologic ends is becoming blurred. An overview of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, PFAPA syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uveitis, pericarditis, Behçet’s disease, gout, Sjögren’s syndrome, interstitial lung diseases, and Still’s disease is presented to highlight the fundamental points that interleukin-1 displays in the cryptic interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems.
    Mediators of Inflammation 02/2015; 2015:1-21. DOI:10.1155/2015/194864 · 2.42 Impact Factor