In vitro and in vivo enhanced generation of human A9 dopamine neurons from neural stem cells by Bcl-XL.
ABSTRACT Human neural stem cells derived from the ventral mesencephalon (VM) are powerful research tools and candidates for cell therapies in Parkinson disease. Previous studies with VM dopaminergic neuron (DAn) precursors indicated poor growth potential and unstable phenotypical properties. Using the model cell line hVM1 (human ventral mesencephalic neural stem cell line 1; a new human fetal VM stem cell line), we have found that Bcl-X(L) enhances the generation of DAn from VM human neural stem cells. Mechanistically, Bcl-X(L) not only exerts the expected antiapoptotic effect but also induces proneural (NGN2 and NEUROD1) and dopamine-related transcription factors, resulting in a high yield of DAn with the correct phenotype of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The expression of key genes directly involved in VM/SNpc dopaminergic patterning, differentiation, and maturation (EN1, LMX1B, PITX3, NURR1, VMAT2, GIRK2, and dopamine transporter) is thus enhanced by Bcl-X(L). These effects on neurogenesis occur in parallel to a decrease in glia generation. These in vitro Bcl-X(L) effects are paralleled in vivo, after transplantation in hemiparkinsonian rats, where hVM1-Bcl-X(L) cells survive, integrate, and differentiate into DAn, alleviating behavioral motor asymmetry. Bcl-X(L) then allows for human fetal VM stem cells to stably generate mature SNpc DAn both in vitro and in vivo and is thus proposed as a helpful factor for the development of cell therapies for neurodegenerative conditions, Parkinson disease in particular.
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ABSTRACT: Bcl-xL is a death-inhibiting member of the Bcl-2/Ced9 family of proteins which either promote or inhibit apoptosis. Gene targeting has revealed that Bcl-xL is required for neuronal survival during brain development; however, Bcl-xL knock-out mice do not survive past embryonic day 13.5, precluding an analysis of Bcl-xL function at later stages of development. Bcl-xL expression is maintained at a high level postnatally in the CNS, suggesting that it may also regulate neuron survival in the postnatal period. To explore functions of Bcl-xL related to neuron survival in postnatal life, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing human Bcl-xL under the control of a pan-neuronal promoter. A line that showed strong overexpression in brainstem and a line that showed overexpression in hippocampus and cortex were chosen for analysis. We asked whether overexpression of Bcl-xL influences neuronal survival in the postnatal period by studying two injury paradigms that result in massive neuronal apoptosis. In the standard neonatal facial axotomy paradigm, Bcl-xL overexpression had substantial effects, with survival of 65% of the motor neurons 7 d after axotomy, as opposed to only 15% in nontransgenic littermates. To investigate whether Bcl-xL regulates survival of CNS neurons in the forebrain, we used a hypoxia-ischemia paradigm in neonatal mice. We show here that hypoxia-ischemia leads to substantial apoptosis in the hippocampus and cortex of wild-type neonatal mice. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of Bcl-xL is neuroprotective in this paradigm. We conclude that levels of Bcl-xL in postnatal neurons may be a critical determinant of their susceptibility to apoptosis.Journal of Neuroscience 03/1998; 18(3):1009-19. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)-responsive stem cells isolated from the developing central nervous system (CNS) can be expanded exponentially in culture while retaining the ability to differentiate into neurons and glia. As such, they represent a possible source of tissue for neural transplantation, providing they can survive and mature following grafting into the adult brain. In this study we have shown that purified rat stem cells generated from either the embryonic mesencephalon or the striatum can survive grafting into the striatum of rats with either ibotenic acid or nigrostriatal dopamine lesions. However, transplanted stem cells do not survive as a large mass typical of primary embryonic CNS tissue grafts, but in contrast form thin grafts containing only a small number of surviving cells. There was no extensive migration of transplanted stem cells labeled with either the lac-z gene or bromodeoxyuridine into the host region surrounding the graft, although a small number of labeled cells were seen in the ventral striatum some distance from the site of implantation. Some of these appeared to differentiate into dopamine neurons, particularly when the developing mesencephalon was used as the starting material for generating the stem cells. EGF-responsive stem cells could also be isolated from the mesencephalon of developing human embryos and expanded in culture, but only grew in large numbers when the gestational age of the embryo was greater than 11 weeks. Purified human CNS stem cells were also transplanted into immunosuppressed rats with nigrostriatal lesions and formed thin grafts similar to those seen when using rat stem cells. However, when primary cultures of human mesencephalon were grown with EGF for only 10 days and this mixture of stem cells and primary neural tissue was transplanted into the dopamine-depleted striatum, large well-formed grafts developed. These contained mostly small undifferentiated cells intermixed with a number of well-differentiated TH-positive neurons. These results show that purified populations of rat or human EGF-responsive CNS stem cells do not form large graft masses or migrate extensively into the surrounding host tissues when transplanted into the adult striatum. However, modifications of the growth conditions in vitro may lead to an improvement of their survival in vivo.Experimental Neurology 03/1996; 137(2):376-88. · 4.65 Impact Factor
- Cell Death and Differentiation 03/2007; 14(2):381-3. · 8.37 Impact Factor