Deletion of the Parkin co-regulated gene causes defects in ependymal ciliary motility and hydrocephalus in the quakingviable mutant mouse.
ABSTRACT The quakingviable mouse (qkv) is a spontaneous recessive mouse mutant with a deletion of approximately 1.1 Mb in the proximal region of chromosome 17. The deletion affects the expression of three genes; quaking (Qk), Parkin-coregulated gene (Pacrg) and parkin (Park2). The resulting phenotype, which includes dysmyelination of the central nervous system and male sterility, is due to reduced expression of Qk and a complete lack of Pacrg expression, respectively. Pacrg is required for correct development of the spermatozoan flagella, a specialized type of motile cilia. In vertebrates, motile cilia are required for multiple functions related to cellular movement or movement of media over a stationary cell surface. To investigate the potential role of PACRG in motile cilia we analysed qkv mutant mice for evidence of cilial dysfunction. Histological and magnetic resonance imaging analyses demonstrated that qkv mutant mice were affected by acquired, communicating hydrocephalus (HC). Structural analysis of ependymal cilia demonstrated that the 9 + 2 arrangement of axonemal microtubules was intact and that both the density of ciliated cells and cilia length was similar to wild-type littermates. Cilia function studies showed a reduction in ependymal cilial beat frequency and cilial mediated flow in qkv mutant mice compared with wild-type littermate controls. Moreover, transgenic expression of Pacrg was necessary and sufficient to correct this deficit and rescue the HC phenotype in the qkv mutant. This study provides novel in vivo evidence that Pacrg is required for motile cilia function and may be involved in the pathogenesis of human ciliopathies, such as HC, asthenospermia and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Centrins are ancient calmodulin-related Ca(2+)-binding proteins associated with basal bodies. In lower eukaryotes, Centrin2 (CETN2) is required for basal body replication and positioning, although its function in mammals is undefined. We generated a germline CETN2 knock-out (KO) mouse presenting with syndromic ciliopathy including dysosmia and hydrocephalus. Absence of CETN2 leads to olfactory cilia loss, impaired ciliary trafficking of olfactory signaling proteins, adenylate cyclase III (ACIII), and cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel, as well as disrupted basal body apical migration in postnatal olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). In mutant OSNs, cilia base-anchoring of intraflagellar transport components IFT88, the kinesin-II subunit KIF3A, and cytoplasmic dynein 2 appeared compromised. Although the densities of mutant ependymal and respiratory cilia were largely normal, the planar polarity of mutant ependymal cilia was disrupted, resulting in uncoordinated flow of CSF. Transgenic expression of GFP-CETN2 rescued the Cetn2-deficiency phenotype. These results indicate that mammalian basal body replication and ciliogenesis occur independently of CETN2; however, mouse CETN2 regulates protein trafficking of olfactory cilia and participates in specifying planar polarity of ependymal cilia.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 04/2014; 34(18):6377-6388. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0067-14.2014 · 6.75 Impact Factor
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.08.049 · 11.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mechanisms linking systems-level programs of gene expression to discrete cell biological processes in vivo remain poorly understood. In this study, we have defined such a program for multi-ciliated epithelial cells (MCCs), a cell type critical for proper development and homeostasis of the airway, brain and reproductive tracts. Starting from genomic analysis of the cilia-associated transcription factor Rfx2, we used bioinformatics and in vivo cell biological approaches to gain insights into the molecular basis of cilia assembly and function. Moreover, we discovered a previously un-recognized role for an Rfx factor in cell movement, finding that Rfx2 cell-autonomously controls apical surface expansion in nascent MCCs. Thus, Rfx2 coordinates multiple, distinct gene expression programs in MCCs, regulating genes that control cell movement, ciliogenesis, and cilia function. As such, the work serves as a paradigm for understanding genomic control of cell biological processes that span from early cell morphogenetic events to terminally differentiated cellular functions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01439.001.eLife Sciences 01/2014; 3:e01439. DOI:10.7554/eLife.01439 · 8.52 Impact Factor