Blood glucose level on postoperative day 1 is predictive of adverse outcomes after cardiovascular surgery.
ABSTRACT Hyperglycaemia is now a recognized predictive factor of morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). For this reason, we aimed to evaluate the postoperative management of glucose control in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery, and to assess the impact of glucose levels on in-hospital mortality and morbidity.
This was a retrospective study investigating the association between postoperative blood glucose and outcomes, including death, post-surgical complications, and length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in hospital.
A total of 642 consecutive patients were enrolled into the study after cardiovascular surgery (CABG, carotid endarterectomy and bypass in the lower limbs). Patients' mean age was 68+/-10 years, and 74% were male. In-hospital mortality was 5% in diabetic patients vs 2% in non-diabetic patients (OR: 1.66, P=0.076). Having blood glucose levels in the upper quartile range (> or =8.8 mmol/L) on postoperative day 1 was independently associated with death (OR: 10.16, P=0.0002), infectious complications (OR: 1.76, P=0.04) and prolonged ICU stay (OR: 3.10, P<0.0001). Patients presenting with three or more hypoglycaemic episodes (<4.1 mmol/L) had increased rates of mortality (OR: 9.08, P<0.0001) and complications (OR: 8.57, P<0.0001).
Glucose levels greater than 8.8 mmol/L on postoperative day 1 and having three or more hypoglycaemic episodes in the postoperative period were predictive of mortality and morbidity among patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. This suggests that a multidisciplinary approach may be able to achieve better postoperative blood glucose control.
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ABSTRACT: The overall benefit of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is dependent on the outcome from the procedure. However, many reports are from selected centres and not population-based. The aim of this study was to assess the 30-day complication rate for a whole country and also to determine independent risk factors for serious complications. One thousand five hundred and eighteen CEA were retrospectively reviewed, covering principally all the CEAs in Sweden, during a three year period. Indications for surgery were; minor stroke 34%, TIA 34%, amaurosis fugax 18%, asymptomatic 11% and others 3%. Data were collected from the Swedish Vascular Registry (Swedvasc). Combined cohort and case-control methodology was used. Registered complications were; 43 permanent strokes, 32 transient strokes (<30 days), 18 TIA/amaurosis fugax and 22 deaths (seven fatal stokes). In the cohort study, the 30-day permanent stroke and death rate were 4.3% (65/1518). Significant risk factors in multivariate analyses were the indication for surgery (minor stroke vs. other indications) (p=0.02, RR=1.38), diabetes (p=0.02, RR=1.41), cardiac disease (p<0.01, RR 1.43) and operation at a university hospital (p=0.02, RR=1.39). In the case-control study comparing the 65 cases of permanent stroke and/or death with 130 matched controls the only significant risk factor was contralateral occlusion (p<0.01, OR=5.27). One patient (1/130) with a permanent stroke was wrongly reported as a local neurological complication (facial paresis). This national audit demonstrated population-based data on complication rates after CEA well comparable with previous randomised trials. The validity of the Swedvasc data was confirmed. Combined cohort and case-control methodology was useful in analysing risk factors for serious perioperative complications.European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 07/2004; 28(1):98-103. · 2.82 Impact Factor
- New England Journal of Medicine 06/2002; 346(20):1586-8; author reply 1586-8. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The conventional view in severe sepsis or septic shock is that most of the lactate that accumulates in the circulation is due to cellular hypoxia and the onset of anaerobic glycolysis. A number of papers have suggested that lactate formation during sepsis is not due to hypoxia. I discuss this hypothesis and outline the recent advances in the understanding of lactate metabolism in shock. Numerous experimental data have demonstrated that stimulation of aerobic glycolysis - that is, glycolysis not attributable to oxygen deficiency - and glycogenolysis occurs not only in resting, well-oxygenated skeletal muscles but also during experimental haemorrhagic shock and experimental sepsis, and is closely linked to stimulation of sarcolemmal Na+/K+ -ATPase under epinephrine stimulation. A human study of hyperkinetic septic shock demonstrated that skeletal muscle is a leading source of lactate production by exaggerated aerobic glycolysis through Na+/K+ -ATPase stimulation. There is increasing evidence that sepsis is accompanied by a hypermetabolic state, with enhanced glycolysis and hyperlactataemia. This should not be rigorously interpreted as an indication of hypoxia. It now appears, at least in the hyperkinetic state, that increased lactate production and concentration as a result of hypoxia are often the exception rather than the rule.Current Opinion in Critical Care 09/2006; 12(4):315-21. · 2.97 Impact Factor