A computationally efficient exact ML sphere decoder
ABSTRACT Low-complexity tree search based exact maximum-likelihood (ML) detectors have gained attention for optimum signal detection in multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) wireless systems. In this paper, taking a fresher look at the closet lattice point search problem, we propose a new fast exact ML sphere decoder with ever-increasing radius (IR-SD). It is shown that IR-SD visits minimum number of tree nodes and is more computationally efficient than existing sphere decoders. IR-SD is also faster and requires less storage than ML stack detector. An upper-bound of expected computation and storage complexity of IR-SD independent of tree radius is derived. Numerical results validate that IR-SD greatly speeds up the ML detection than other sphere detectors while requiring less storage than ML stack algorithm. A factor-of-2.5 speed-up is observed over the depth-first Schnorr-Euchner sphere decoders when utilizing IR-SD in 16-QAM 10×10 complex MIMO system.
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ABSTRACT: Evolution of intracranial aneurysms is known to be related to hemodynamic forces such as wall shear stress (WSS) and maximum shear stress (MSS). Estimation of these parameters can be performed using numerical simulations with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), but can also be directly measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a time-dependent 3D phase-contrast sequence with encoding of each of the three components of the velocity vectors (7D-MRV). To study the accuracy of 7D-MRV in estimating these parameters in vivo, in comparison with CFD, 7D-MRV and patient-specific CFD modeling was performed for 3 patients who had intracranial aneurysms. Visual and quantitative analyses of the flow pattern and distribution of velocities, MSS, and WSS were performed using the two techniques. Spearman's coefficients of correlation between the two techniques were 0.56 for the velocity field, 0.48 for MSS, and 0.59 for WSS. Visual analysis and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for flow pattern and velocities but large discrepancies for MSS and WSS. These results indicate that 7D-MRV can be used in vivo to measure velocity flow fields and for estimating MSS and WSS. Currently, however, this method cannot accurately quantify the latter two parameters.Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 02/2009; 61(2):409-17. · 3.27 Impact Factor
Article: Digital Communications, 3rd Edition
Article: Closest point search in lattices.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this semitutorial paper, a comprehensive survey ofclosest point search methods for lattices without a regular structureis presented. The existing search strategies are described in a unifiedframework, and differences between them are elucidated. Anefficient closest point search algorithm, based on the Schnorr--Euchnervariation of the Pohst method, is implemented. Given an arbitrarypoint and a generator matrix for a lattice3,the algorithmcomputes the point ofthat is closest to...IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. 01/2002; 48:2201-2214.