The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is one of the most important systems in physiology and in pathology. The (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) is a new component of the system that has attracted much attention being potentially a new therapeutic target. The receptor binds renin and the inactive proenzyme form of renin, prorenin, and the binding triggers the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p42/p44 followed by up-regulation of the expression of profibrotic genes. In addition, prorenin bound to (P)RR undergoes a conformational change and becomes catalytically active. Many animal studies have tried to demonstrate a role for (P)RR in hypertension and in tissue damage associated with diabetes, but if they showed that increased (P)RR was found in kidney of diabetic mice associated with glomerulosclerosis and in heart of hypertensive rats associated with cardiac fibrosis, no definite link could be established between elevated (P)RR and cardiovascular and renal pathologies because of the absence of animal models with a tissue-specific (P)RR knock-out and a lack of a (P)RR antagonist. On the contrary, the human and the animal mutations are calling our attention to an essential role of (P)RR during early development, in particular in neuronal development.
"Consider, for example, the inextricably interwoven functions of the cardiovascular and renal systems, both in health and disease (for reviews see White et al., 2011; Merhaut and Trupp, 2010; Iwanaga and Miyazaki, 2010). The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exhibits enormous influence over the cardiovascular system via direct and indirect hormonal signals (for reviews see Harrison- Bernard, 2009; Kumar et al., 2009; Rohini et al., 2010; Nguyen, 2010), just as the kidneys are utterly dependent upon appropriate blood flow for plasma filtration and urine formation (for reviews see Daniels and Maisel, 2007; Patel, 2009). We know a great deal about the mechanisms and effects of these interactions in adult animals, how do these physiological interactions (as distinct from the morphologies that support them) first appear and mature? "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Embryo-environment interactions affecting cardio-respiratory development in vertebrates have been extensively studied, but an equally extensive conceptual framework for interpreting and interrelating these developmental events has lagged behind. In this review, we consider the conceptual constructs of "developmental plasticity", "critical windows", "developmental trajectory" and related concepts as they apply to both vertebrate and invertebrate development. Developmental plasticity and the related phenomenon of "heterokairy" are considered as a subset of phenotypic plasticity, and examples of cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic plasticity illustrate the variable outcomes of embryo-environment interactions. The concept of the critical window is revealed to be overarching in cardio-respiratory development, and events originating within a critical window, potentially mitigated by "self-repair" capabilities of the embryo, are shown to result in modified developmental trajectories and, ultimately, modified adult phenotype. Finally, epigenetics, fetal programming and related phenomena are considered in the context of potentially life-long cardio-respiratory phenotypic modification resulting from embryo-environment interactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A common dilemma in direct marketing is that of which customers to target, and which to ignore. Once a profile has been gathered of a “good” or “ideal” customer, can those characteristics be identified in larger national databases? This article describes efforts to achieve this on behalf of a client, UniBank, who wishes to enlarge the market for a successful existing product, ExcursionCard. A large sample of the general population is compared with the existing ExcursionCard database in order to determine a customer profile with regard to responsiveness, profitability and risk. We demonstrate how a judicious combination of multivariate techniques and logistic regression can be used to help in determining whether these segments exist, what determines membership of the segments, and how to predict probable segment membership for potential clients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The solution composed with a respect to longitudinal components of distribution of electric and magnetic current densities is obtained for the radiation problem of a surface antenna placed on the impedance cylinder using the integral equation method. Components of the antenna pattern (AP) are found by using the Lorentz lemma where auxiliary dipole is disposed ad infinitum. Current distribution densities for the corresponding AP components are defined basing on the solution of diffractions problems of plane E- and H-polarized waves incident on cylinder from direction allocating the AP observation point. The distribution of surface current density is approximated by step functions with unknown coefficients. The effect of surface impedance on singularities of excited electromagnetic field structure in far zone is analyzed. The results of numerical investigations are presented.
Antenna Theory and Techniques, 2003. 4th International Conference on; 10/2003
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