Outcome Following Infliximab Therapy in Children With Ulcerative Colitis
ABSTRACT Infliximab is effective in treating moderate/severe ulcerative colitis (UC) in adults. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome after treatment with infliximab in pediatric UC.
We performed a multicenter cohort study of 332 pediatric patients with UC enrolled in the Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Collaborative Research Group Registry. Children<or=16 years of age and newly diagnosed with UC are enrolled in the registry. Disease and medication information are collected prospectively from the treating physician at diagnosis, 30 days, and quarterly thereafter. No interventions were specified, per protocol.
Of 332 patients, 52 (16%) received infliximab (23%<3 months from diagnosis, 38% 3-12 months, 38% >12 months). Mean age at infliximab initiation was 13.3+/-2.6 (range 6-17) years; 87% of patients had pancolitis. Median follow-up was 30 months. Continuous maintenance (CM) therapy was given in 65%, episodic in 21%, episodic converted to CM in 6%, and insufficient data in 8% of patients. Sixty-three percent of patients were corticosteroid refractory, and 35% were corticosteroid dependent. Concomitant medications at first infliximab infusion included corticosteroids (87%), thiopurines (63%), and 5-aminosalicylates (51%). Corticosteroid-free inactive disease by physician global assessment was noted in 12/44 (27%), 15/39 (38%), and 6/28 (21%) patients at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the likelihood of remaining colectomy free after treatment with infliximab was 75% at 6 months, 72% at 12 months, and 61% at 2 years.
In this cohort of children with UC receiving infliximab, corticosteroid-free inactive disease was observed in 38 and 21% of patients at 12 and 24 months, respectively. By 24 months, 61% of patients had avoided colectomy.
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ABSTRACT: Delay in the outcome variable is challenging for outcome-adaptive randomization, as it creates a lag between the number of subjects accrued and the information known at the time of the analysis. Motivated by a real-life pediatric ulcerative colitis trial, we consider a case where a short-term predictor is available for the delayed outcome. When a short-term predictor is not considered, studies have shown that the asymptotic properties of many outcome-adaptive randomization designs are little affected unless the lag is unreasonably large relative to the accrual process. These theoretical results assumed independent identical delays, however, whereas delays in the presence of a short-term predictor may only be conditionally homogeneous. We consider delayed outcomes as missing and propose mitigating the delay effect by imputing them. We apply this approach to the doubly adaptive biased coin design (DBCD) for motivating pediatric ulcerative colitis trial. We provide theoretical results that if the delays, although non-homogeneous, are reasonably short relative to the accrual process similarly as in the iid delay case, the lag is also asymptotically ignorable in the sense that a standard DBCD that utilizes only observed outcomes attains target allocation ratios in the limit. Empirical studies, however, indicate that imputation-based DBCDs performed more reliably in finite samples with smaller root mean square errors. The empirical studies assumed a common clinical setting where a delayed outcome is positively correlated with a short-term predictor similarly between treatment arm groups. We varied the strength of the correlation and considered fast and slow accrual settings. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Statistics in Medicine 10/2014; 33(23). DOI:10.1002/sim.6222 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Although the development of therapy-related skin reactions is common along with an increase in the number of adult patients receiving anti-TNF alpha, there are few studies on pediatric inflammatory bowel disease; hence, this prospective study focuses on skin reactions related to infliximab therapy. Methods: All pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease undergoing infliximab therapy were prospectively screened for the presence of skin manifestations at the time of each infusion between March 1, 2011 and March 31, 2011 at Children's Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Blood inflammatory markers and fecal calprotectin levels were measured at the time of infusions. Results: During the study period, 84 children with inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's n = 64) received infliximab infusions (the median duration of therapy 12.2 mo). Almost every other patient (n = 40; 47.6%) presented chronic skin reactions, 23% with lesions considered severe. Most commonly, the patient's ear lobes and scalp were affected with psoriasis-like manifestations, followed by their eyelids, perioral and pubic area, trunk, and the extremities. However, an HLA-Cw*0602 genotype associating with psoriasis was rare. Interestingly, most patients with skin reactions had a low degree of intestinal inflammation based on their fecal calprotectin levels (median level, 133 mu g/g versus 589 in unaffected patients; P < 0.016). Seven patients (8.3% of all patients but 17% of those with skin lesions) discontinued the given therapy due to a skin reaction. Conclusions: Skin reactions are common during maintenance therapy with infliximab in pediatric patients. For most patients, skin reactions seem to correlate with a low level of intestinal inflammation. Although potentially harsh, skin lesions mostly allow continuation of infliximab.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 06/2014; 20(8). DOI:10.1097/MIB.0000000000000088 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since their appearance in the armamentarium for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) more than a decade ago, antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors have demonstrated beneficial activity in induction and maintenance of clinical remission, mucosal healing, improvement in quality of life, and reduction in surgeries and hospitalizations. However, more than one-third of patients present primary resistance, and another one-third become resistant over time. One of the main factors associated with loss of response is the immunogenicity of anti-TNF biologics leading to the production of antidrug antibodies (ADAbs) accelerating their clearance. In this review we present the current state of the literature on the place of TNF and its blockage in the treatment of patients with IBD and discuss the usefulness of serum trough levels and ADAb monitoring in the optimization of anti-TNF therapies.Mediators of Inflammation 03/2014; 2014:172821. DOI:10.1155/2014/172821 · 2.42 Impact Factor